S-3
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on November 1, 2021

Registration No. 333-                

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   81-4717861

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

15440 Laguna Canyon Road, Suite 160

Irvine, California 92618

(949) 409-9820

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of Registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

Bobak Azamian, M.D., Ph.D.

President and Chief Executive Officer

15440 Laguna Canyon Road, Suite 160

Irvine, California 92618

(949) 409-9820

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Ilan Lovinsky

Ryan J. Gunderson

Leanne A. Gould
Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve
Franklin & Hachigian, LLP
3570 Carmel Mountain Rd., Suite 200
San Diego, CA 92130
(858) 436-8000

 

Leonard M. Greenstein

Chief Financial Officer

Bryan Wahl

General Counsel

Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

15440 Laguna Canyon Road, Suite 160

Irvine, California 92618

(949) 409-9820

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public:

From time to time, after the effective date of this Registration Statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
  Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price(1)(2)(3)
  Amount of
Registration Fee

Common Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

  —     —  

Preferred Stock, $0.0001 par value per share

  —     —  

Debt Securities

  —     —  

Warrants

  —     —  

Units

  —     —  

Total Registration Fee

  $300,000,000 (3)   $27,810 (4)

 

 

(1)

The securities registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, and units as may be issued upon conversion or exchange of any preferred stock or warrants registered hereunder that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of any such securities.

(2)

The proposed maximum per unit and aggregate offering prices per class of securities will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered under this registration statement and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D of Form S-3 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. With respect to debt securities, the public offering price therefor excludes accrued interest and accrued amortization of discount, if any, to the date of delivery.

(3)

Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The proposed maximum offering price per unit will be determined by us in connection with the issuance of the securities. In no event will the aggregate offering price of all securities issued by the registrant from time to time pursuant to this Registration Statement exceed $300,000,000 or the equivalent thereof in one or more foreign currencies, foreign currency units or composite currencies.

(4)

Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

   

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $300 million in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $100 million of our common stock that may be issued and sold under an Open Market Sale AgreementSM, or the Sale Agreement, with Jefferies LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus.

The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $100 million of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the Sale Agreement prospectus is included in the $300 million of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the Registrant under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the Sale Agreement with Jefferies, any portion of the $100 million included in the Sale Agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the Sale Agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the Sale Agreement, the full $300 million of securities may be sold in other offerings by us pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the Securities and Exchange Commission declares our registration statement effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED NOVEMBER 1, 2021

PROSPECTUS

 

LOGO

$300,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

We may offer and sell from time to time up to $300 million in the aggregate, in one or more series or issuances and on terms that we will determine at the time of the offering, any combination of the securities described in this prospectus. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. We will provide specific terms of any offering in a prospectus supplement to this prospectus. Any prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update, or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus relating to a particular offering as well as the documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus before you purchase any of the securities offered hereby.

We may offer and sell these securities in the same offering or in separate offerings; to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents; or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. The names of any underwriters, dealers, or agents involved in the sale of our securities, their compensation and any over-allotment options held by them will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. None of our securities may be sold without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of those securities. See “Plan of Distribution.”

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “TARS.” On October 29, 2021, the last reported sale price for our common stock was $27.76 per share. This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

 

 

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES SIGNIFICANT RISKS. SEE “RISK FACTORS” BEGINNING ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AS WELL AS THE RISK FACTORS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT FROM OUR FILINGS WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, BEFORE INVESTING IN ANY OF OUR SECURITIES.

 

 

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

The date of this prospectus is                , 2021.


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     Page  

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

     2  

RISK FACTORS

     5  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     6  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     9  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     17  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     19  

LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

     20  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     23  

LEGAL MATTERS

     26  

EXPERTS

     26  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     26  

INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

     27  


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may, from time to time, offer and sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $300 million.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may include a discussion of any risk factors or other special considerations that apply to those securities. The prospectus supplement may also add to, update or change information contained in the prospectus and, accordingly, to the extent inconsistent, information in this prospectus is superseded by the information in the prospectus supplement.

The prospectus supplement to be attached to the front of this prospectus may describe, as applicable: the terms of the securities offered; the initial or secondary public offering price; the price paid for the securities; net proceeds; and the other specific terms related to the offering of the securities.

You should only rely on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus relating to a particular offering. No person has been authorized to give any information or make any representations in connection with this offering other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus in connection with the offering described herein and therein, and, if given or made, such information or representations must not be relied upon as having been authorized by us. Neither this prospectus nor any prospectus supplement nor any related free writing prospectus shall constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy offered securities in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offering or solicitation. This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits.

You should read the entire prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference before making an investment decision. Neither the delivery of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus nor any sale made hereunder shall under any circumstances imply that the information contained or incorporated by reference herein or in any prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus is correct as of any date subsequent to the date hereof or of such prospectus supplement or related free writing prospectus, as applicable. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any document incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the applicable documents, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of securities. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary description about us and our business highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus or incorporated in this prospectus by reference. This summary does not contain all of the information you should consider before buying securities in this offering. You should carefully read this entire prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, including each of the documents incorporated herein or therein by reference, before making an investment decision. As used in this prospectus, “we,” “us,” “Tarsus,” the “Company,” and “our” refer to Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation.

Overview

We are a late clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of therapeutic candidates to address large market opportunities initially in ophthalmic conditions where there are limited treatment alternatives. Our lead product candidate, TP-03, is a novel therapeutic in Phase 3 that is being developed for the treatment of blepharitis caused by the infestation of Demodex mites, which is referred to as Demodex blepharitis. Blepharitis (“Blephar” is a reference to eyelid and “itis” is a reference to inflammation) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the eyelid margin, redness and ocular irritation, including a specific type of eyelash dandruff called collarettes. The healthy interaction of the eyelid and the surface of the eye is crucial to ocular health. Poorly controlled and progressive blepharitis can lead to worsening of corneal damage over time and, in extreme cases, blindness.

We believe that TP-03 has the potential to be the first therapeutic approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, for the treatment of Demodex blepharitis and become the standard of care. The active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, of TP-03, lotilaner, is designed to paralyze and eradicate mites and other parasites through the inhibition of parasite-specific gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride, or GABA-Cl channels.

We intend to further advance our pipeline with the lotilaner API to address several diseases across therapeutic categories in human medicine, including eye care, dermatology, and other diseases. These targeted diseases with high unmet medical needs currently include TP-03 for the treatment of Meibomian Glad Disease, TP-04 for the potential treatment of rosacea and TP-05 for the potential Lyme disease prophylaxis and community malaria reduction.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware on November 17, 2016. Our principal executive offices are located at 15440 Laguna Canyon Road, Suite 160, Irvine, California 92618. Our main


 

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telephone number is (949) 409-9820. Our website is www.tarsusrx.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website address is not part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein.

Trademarks

Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Tarsus, and our logo are some of our tradenames used in this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. This prospectus also includes trademarks, tradenames, and service marks that are the property of other organizations. Solely for convenience, our trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus appear without the or ® symbol, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and tradenames.

We are an Emerging Growth Company

We currently are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or JOBS Act. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the issuance, in any three-year period, by us of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (iv) the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering. As a result of this status, we have taken advantage of reduced reporting requirements in this prospectus that are applicable to other publicly-traded entities that are not emerging growth companies and may elect to take advantage of other exemptions from reporting requirements in our future filings with the SEC. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company may take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards, delaying the adoption of these accounting standards until they would apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption and, as a result, we will adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may continue to qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements including reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus and our periodic reports and proxy statements, if either (i) the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue is less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million.

The Securities We May Offer

We may offer up to $300 million of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in one or more offerings and in any combination, including in units from time to time. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. A prospectus supplement, which we will provide each time we offer securities, will describe the specific amounts, prices and terms of these securities.

Common Stock

Each holder of our common stock is entitled to one vote for each share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders, and there are no cumulative rights. Subject to any preferential rights of any outstanding preferred stock, holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably the dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of funds legally available therefor. If there is a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, holders of our common stock would be entitled to share in


 

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our assets remaining after the payment of liabilities and any preferential rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock is described in greater detail in this prospectus under “Description of Capital Stock — Common Stock.”

Preferred Stock

Under the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock.

Each series of preferred stock, if issued, will be more fully described in the particular prospectus supplement that will accompany this prospectus, including redemption provisions, rights in the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, voting rights and rights to convert into common stock. We have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock, nor are any shares of our preferred stock presently outstanding. Preferred stock is described in greater detail in this prospectus under “Description of Capital Stock — Preferred Stock.”

Debt Securities

The debt securities may be senior or subordinated in right of payment. For any particular debt securities we offer, the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet will describe the title and series of the debt securities, the aggregate principal amount and the original issue price; the ranking, whether senior or subordinated; the stated maturity; the redemption terms, if any; the rate or manner of calculating the rate and the payment dates for interest; the amount or manner of calculating the amount payable at maturity and whether that amount may be paid by delivering cash, securities or other property; the terms on which the debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for common stock or other securities of Tarsus, or any other entity, if any; and any other specific terms. We will issue the debt securities under an indenture, as described in “Description of Debt Securities.”

Warrants

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock or debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities.

The warrants will be evidenced by warrant certificates issued under one or more warrant agreements, which are contracts between us and an agent for the holders of the warrants. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants under “Description of Warrants.” We urge you, however, to read the prospectus supplements and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement which includes this prospectus.

Units

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other classes of securities issued by us as described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Units are described in greater detail in this prospectus under “Description of Units.”


 

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our securities involves significant risks. The prospectus supplement applicable to each offering of our securities will contain a discussion of the risks applicable to an investment in our securities. Prior to making a decision about investing in our securities, you should carefully consider the specific factors discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained or incorporated by reference in the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should also consider the risks, uncertainties and assumptions discussed under Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and in our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q filed subsequent to such Annual Report on Form 10-K, as well as any amendments thereto, all of which are incorporated herein by reference, and may be amended, supplemented or superseded from time to time by other reports we file with the SEC in the future and by information contained in any prospectus supplement related to a particular offering. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our business, results of operations and financial conditions and could result in a partial or complete loss of your investment.

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, each prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and each prospectus supplement contains and may contain certain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The words “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “can,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” ‘intend,” “may,” “objective,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “project,” “predict,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” and “would” and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. Those statements appear in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated herein and therein by reference, particularly in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Business,” and include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of the Company and management that are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions.

This prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement also contain statements that are based on the current expectations of our Company and management. You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.

Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. The risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated or implied in our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those set forth above under the section entitled “Risk Factors” and in the applicable prospectus supplement, together with all of the other information contained in or incorporated by reference into the prospectus supplement or appearing or incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein after we distribute this prospectus, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, we will use the net proceeds from the sale of securities offered by this prospectus to fund the clinical development of our current product candidates, to develop or acquire new products or technologies that are complementary to our business (although have no such acquisition commitments as of the date of this prospectus supplement), and for our general corporate and working capital purposes. The timing and amount of our actual expenditures will be based on many factors, including the anticipated growth of our business. As a result, unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds of the offerings. Pending their ultimate use, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short-term, investment-grade, interest-bearing instruments.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following information describes our common stock and preferred stock, as well as certain provisions of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws. This description is only a summary. You should also refer to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and amended and restated bylaws, which have been incorporated by reference as exhibits to our registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 200,000,000 shares of common stock, with a $0.0001 par value per share and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, with a $0.0001 par value per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated. Our board of directors may establish the rights and preferences of the preferred stock from time to time. As of September 30, 2021, there were 20,671,079 shares of our common stock outstanding held by approximately 35 stockholders of record, although we believe that there may be a significantly larger number of beneficial owners of our common stock.

Common Stock

The holders of common stock are entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted upon by the stockholders. The holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably such dividends, if any, as may be declared from time to time by the board of directors out of funds legally available, subject to preferences that may be applicable to preferred stock, if any, then outstanding. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our company, the holders of common stock are entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of liabilities, subject to prior distribution rights of preferred stock, if any, then outstanding. The common stock has no preemptive or conversion rights or other subscription rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. All outstanding shares of common stock are fully paid and non-assessable.

The rights, preferences and privileges of the holders of our common stock are subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TARS.” The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is ComputerShare Trust Company, N.A. Its address is 462 South 4th Street, Suite 1600, Louisville, KY 40202.

Preferred Stock

The following description of preferred stock and the description of the terms of any particular series of preferred stock that we choose to issue hereunder and that will be set forth in the related prospectus supplement are not complete. These descriptions are qualified in their entirety by reference to our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designation relating to any series. The rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions of the preferred stock of each series will be fixed by the certificate of designation relating to that series. The prospectus supplement also will contain a description of certain United States federal income tax consequences relating to the purchase and ownership of the series of preferred stock that is described in the prospectus supplement.

Under the terms of our amended and restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized to issue shares of preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors has the discretion to determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock. There are no restrictions presently on the repurchase or redemption of any shares of our preferred stock.

 

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The prospectus supplement for a series of preferred stock will specify:

 

   

the maximum number of shares;

 

   

the designation of the shares;

 

   

the annual dividend rate, if any, whether the dividend rate is fixed or variable, the date or dates on which dividends will accrue, the dividend payment dates, and whether dividends will be cumulative;

 

   

the price and the terms and conditions for redemption, if any, including redemption at our option or at the option of the holders, including the time period for redemption, and any accumulated dividends or premiums;

 

   

the liquidation preference, if any, and any accumulated dividends upon the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of our affairs;

 

   

any sinking fund or similar provision, and, if so, the terms and provisions relating to the purpose and operation of the fund;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion or exchange of shares of any other class or classes of our capital stock or any series of any other class or classes, or of any other series of the same class, or any other securities or assets, including the price or the rate of conversion or exchange and the method, if any, of adjustment;

 

   

the voting rights; and

 

   

any or all other preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights, privileges or qualifications, limitations or restrictions.

The issuance of preferred stock will affect, and may adversely affect, the rights of holders of common stock. It is not possible to state the actual effect of the issuance of any shares of preferred stock on the rights of holders of common stock until the board of directors determines the specific rights attached to that preferred stock. The effects of issuing preferred stock could include one or more of the following:

 

   

restricting dividends on the common stock;

 

   

diluting the voting power of the common stock;

 

   

impairing the liquidation rights of the common stock; or

 

   

delaying or preventing changes in control or management of our company.

We have no present plans to issue any shares of preferred stock nor are any shares of our preferred stock presently outstanding. Preferred stock will be fully paid and nonassessable upon issuance.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

We may issue debt securities in one or more distinct series. This section summarizes the material terms of the debt securities that are expected to be common to all series. Most of the financial terms and other specific material terms, as well as any material U.S. federal income tax consequences, of any series of debt securities that we offer will be described in a prospectus supplement or term sheet to be attached to this prospectus. Since the terms of specific debt securities may differ from the general information provided below, you should read both this prospectus and the relevant prospectus supplement or term sheet and rely on information in the prospectus supplement or term sheet that supersedes any contrary or inconsistent information below.

As required by federal law for all bonds and notes of companies that are publicly offered, the debt securities will be governed by a document called an “indenture.” An indenture is a contract between us and a financial institution acting as trustee on your behalf. The trustee has two main roles. First, the trustee can enforce your rights against us if we default. There are some limitations on the extent to which the trustee acts on your behalf, described in the second paragraph under “Events of Default.” Second, the trustee performs certain administrative duties for us.

Senior or subordinated debt securities will be issued by us under an indenture or indentures dated as of                , 20     , as supplemented from time to time, between us, as issuer, and the trustee identified in the relevant prospectus supplement, or the trustee. The debt securities may be guaranteed by one or more of our subsidiaries.

The indenture will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the TIA. The terms “we,” “our” and “us,” when used to refer to an issuer of securities, means Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Because this section is a summary, it does not describe every aspect of the debt securities and the indenture. We urge you to read the indenture because it, and not this description, defines your rights as a holder of debt securities. For example, in this section, we use capitalized words to signify terms that are specifically defined in the indenture. Some of the definitions are repeated in this prospectus, or in the relevant prospectus supplement, but for the rest you will need to read the indenture. See “Where You Can Find More Information” for information on how to locate the indenture and any supplemental indentures that may be filed.

General Provisions of the Indenture

Unless otherwise specified in a prospectus supplement or term sheet for a particular series, the debt securities covered by this prospectus will be direct, unsecured obligations of Tarsus. Any senior securities will be unsecured and will rank equally with all other unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness of Tarsus. Any subordinated securities will be unsecured and will be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment in full of the senior indebtedness of Tarsus, as more fully described in a prospectus supplement or term sheet.

The indenture provides that any debt securities proposed to be sold under this prospectus and an attached prospectus supplement or term sheet (“offered debt securities”) and any debt securities issuable upon the exercise of debt warrants or upon conversion or exchange of other offered securities (“underlying debt securities”), as well as other debt securities, may be issued under the indenture in one or more series. Any secured indebtedness of ours will rank ahead of the debt securities to the extent of the value of the assets securing such indebtedness.

You should read the prospectus supplement or term sheet for the material terms of the offered debt securities and any underlying debt securities, including the following:

 

   

the title of the debt securities and whether the debt securities will be senior securities or subordinated securities of Tarsus;

 

   

the total principal amount of the debt securities of the series and any limit on such total principal amount;

 

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if not the principal amount of the debt securities, the portion of the principal amount payable upon acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities or how this portion will be determined;

 

   

the date or dates, or how the date or dates will be determined or may be extended, when the principal of the debt securities will be payable;

 

   

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, that the debt securities will bear, if any, or how the rate or rates will be determined, the date or dates from which any interest will accrue or how the date or dates will be determined, the interest payment dates, any record dates for these payments, whether payments of interest will be made in cash or in kind and the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

   

any optional redemption provisions;

 

   

any sinking fund or other provisions that would obligate us to repurchase or otherwise redeem the debt securities;

 

   

the form in which we will issue the debt securities and whether we will have the option of issuing debt securities in “certificated” form;

 

   

if other than U.S. dollars, the currency or currencies in which the debt securities are denominated and/or payable;

 

   

whether the amount of payments of principal, premium or interest, if any, on the debt securities will be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method (which index, formula or method may be based, without limitation, on one or more currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices), and how these amounts will be determined;

 

   

the place or places, if any, other than or in addition to The City of New York, of payment, transfer, conversion and/or exchange of the debt securities;

 

   

if other than minimum denominations of $2,000 or any integral multiple of $1,000 above the minimum denomination in the case of registered securities issued in certificated form, the denominations in which the offered debt securities will be issued;

 

   

if the provisions of Article Fourteen of the indenture described under “defeasance” are not applicable and any provisions in modification of, in addition to or in lieu of any of these provisions;

 

   

whether and under what circumstances we will pay additional amounts, as contemplated by Section 1010 of the indenture, in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem the debt securities rather than pay the additional amounts (and the terms of this option);

 

   

whether the debt securities are subordinated and the terms of such subordination;

 

   

any provisions granting special rights to the holders of the debt securities upon the occurrence of specified events;

 

   

any changes or additions to the Events of Default or covenants contained in the applicable indenture;

 

   

whether the debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for any other securities and the applicable terms and conditions;

 

   

whether the debt securities are guaranteed; and

 

   

any other material terms of the debt securities.

For purposes of this prospectus, any reference to the payment of principal of or premium or interest, if any, on the debt securities will include additional amounts if required by the terms of the debt securities.

 

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The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that may be issued thereunder from time to time. Debt securities issued under the indenture when a single trustee is acting for all debt securities issued under the indenture are called the “indenture securities.” The indenture also provides that there may be more than one trustee thereunder, each with respect to one or more different series of indenture securities. See “—Resignation of Trustee” below. At a time when two or more trustees are acting under the indenture, each with respect to only certain series, the term “indenture securities” means the one or more series of debt securities with respect to which each respective trustee is acting. In the event that there is more than one trustee under the indenture, the powers and trust obligations of each trustee described in this prospectus will extend only to the one or more series of indenture securities for which it is trustee. If two or more trustees are acting under the indenture, then the indenture securities for which each trustee is acting would be treated as if issued under separate indentures.

The indenture does not contain any provisions that give you protection in the event we issue a large amount of debt, we repurchase a significant amount of equity or effect a recapitalization, or we are acquired by another entity.

We refer you to the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet for information with respect to any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the Events of Default or our covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.

We have the ability to issue indenture securities with terms different from those of indenture securities previously issued and, without the consent of the holders thereof, to reopen a previous issue of a series of indenture securities and issue additional indenture securities of that series unless the reopening was restricted when that series was created. Any additional indenture securities, together with all other outstanding indenture securities of that series, will constitute a single series of indenture securities under the indenture.

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet, the debt securities will be denominated in U.S. dollars and all payments on the debt securities will be made in U.S. dollars.

Payment of the purchase price of the debt securities must be made in immediately available funds.

The authorized denominations of debt securities denominated in U.S. dollars will be a minimum denomination of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 above the minimum denomination. The authorized denominations of foreign currency notes will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet.

Interest and Interest Rates

Each debt security will begin to accrue interest from the date it is originally issued. The related prospectus supplement or term sheet will describe the method of determining the interest rate.

Payment and Paying Agents

We will pay interest to the person listed in the trustee’s records as the owner of the debt security at the close of business on a particular day in advance of each regularly scheduled date for interest, even if that person no longer owns the debt security on the interest due date. That day, typically set at a date approximately two weeks prior to the interest due date, is called the “record date.” Because we will pay all the interest for an interest period to the holders on the record date, holders buying and selling debt securities must work out between themselves the appropriate purchase price. The most common manner is to adjust the sales price of the debt securities to prorate interest fairly between buyer and seller based on their respective ownership periods within the particular interest period. This prorated interest amount is called “accrued interest.”

 

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Payments on Global Securities

We will make payments on a global security in accordance with the applicable policies of the depositary as in effect from time to time. Under those policies, we will make payments directly to the depositary, or its nominee, and not to any indirect holders who own beneficial interests in the global security. An indirect holder’s right to those payments will be governed by the rules and practices of the depositary and its participants.

Payments on Certificated Debt Securities

We will make payments on a certificated debt security as follows. We will pay interest that is due on an interest payment date by check mailed on the interest payment date to the holder at his or her address shown on the trustee’s records as of the close of business on the regular record date. We will make payments of principal and premium, if any, duly and punctually to the office of the trustee.

Alternatively, if the holder asks us to do so, we may pay any amount that becomes due on the debt security by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account at a bank in New York City, on the due date. To request payment by wire, the holder must give the trustee or other paying agent appropriate transfer instructions at least 15 calendar days before the requested wire payment is due. In the case of any interest payment due on an interest payment date, the instructions must be given by the person who is the holder on the relevant regular record date. Any wire instructions, once properly given, will remain in effect unless and until new instructions are given in the manner described above. In addition, see the description under “Interest and Interest Rates.”

Material Covenants

The prospectus supplement or term sheet relating to a particular series of debt securities that we offer will describe the material covenants included in the indenture and will be subject to negotiation between the holder and us. Such material covenants may include covenants with respect to payments of principal, premium (if any) and interest and limitations or restrictions with respect to a consolidation, merger sale or conveyance of us, restrictions on liens, or other covenants, limitations or restrictions on us.

Events of Default

An event of default with respect to the debt securities of any series is defined in the indenture as:

 

  (a)

default for 30 days in payment of any interest on the debt securities of such series when it becomes due and payable;

 

  (b)

default in payment of principal of or any premium on the debt securities of such series at maturity or upon redemption or repayment when the same becomes due and payable;

 

  (c)

default by us in the performance of any other covenant contained in the applicable indenture for the benefit of the debt securities of such series that has not been remedied by the end of a specified period of time after notice is given as specified in the indenture; and

 

  (d)

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency and reorganization of Tarsus.

The prospectus supplement or term sheet relating to a particular series of debt securities that we offer will describe the events of default included in the indenture and will be subject to negotiation between the holder and us.

Modification of the Indenture

We and the trustee may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities issued under such indenture, enter into supplemental indentures for, among others, one or more of the following purposes:

 

   

to evidence the succession of another corporation to us and the assumption by such successor of its obligations under the indenture and the debt securities;

 

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to add covenants of Tarsus or surrender any of its rights, or add any rights for the benefit of the holders of debt securities;

 

   

to cure any ambiguity, omission, defect or inconsistency in such indenture;

 

   

to establish the form or terms of any other series of debt securities, including any subordinated securities;

 

   

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act;

 

   

to evidence and provide the acceptance of any successor trustee with respect to the debt securities or one or more other series of debt securities under the indenture or to facilitate the administration of the trusts thereunder by one or more trustees in accordance with the indenture; and

 

   

to provide any additional events of default;

 

   

to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of the indentures in respect of one or more series of debt securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination, shall become effective only when there is no security outstanding of any series created prior to the adoption of such addition, change or elimination;

 

   

to make any provisions with respect to the optional conversion rights of holders, including providing for the conversion of the debt securities into any other security or securities of ours, provided that such provisions are not adverse to the interests of the holders of any debt securities then outstanding;

 

   

to add any guarantee of one or more series of the debt securities; or

 

   

to supplement any of the provisions of the indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance and discharge of any series of debt securities pursuant to the indenture; provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of debt securities of such series and any related coupons or any other series of securities in any material respect.

With certain exceptions, the indenture or the rights of the holders of the debt securities may be modified by us and the trustee with the consent of the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities then outstanding affected thereby, but no such modification may be made without the consent of the holder of each outstanding note affected thereby that would:

 

   

change the maturity of the principal of, or any premium on, or any installment of principal of or interest on any debt securities, or reduce the principal amount or any premium or the rate or manner of calculating interest or any premium payable upon redemption or repayment of any debt securities, or change the dates or periods for any redemption or repayment or change any place of payment where, or the coin or currency in which, any principal, premium or interest is payable, or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the maturity thereof (or, in the case of redemption or repayment, on or after the redemption or repayment date);

 

   

reduce the percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities, the consent whose holders is required for any such modification, or the consent of whose holders is required for any waiver of compliance with certain provisions of the indenture or certain defaults thereunder and their consequences provided for in the indenture; or

 

   

modify any of the provisions of certain sections of the indenture, including the provisions summarized in this paragraph, except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of the indenture cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of each of the outstanding debt securities affected thereby.

 

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Defeasance

The following provisions will be applicable to each series of debt securities unless we state in the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet that the provisions of covenant defeasance and full defeasance will not be applicable to that series.

Covenant Defeasance

Under current United States federal tax law, we can make the deposit described below and be released from some of the restrictive covenants in the indenture under which the particular series was issued. This is called “covenant defeasance.” In that event, you would lose the protection of those restrictive covenants but would gain the protection of having money and government securities set aside in trust to repay your debt securities. In order to achieve covenant defeasance, we must do the following:

 

   

deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of such debt securities a combination of money and government or government agency debt securities or bonds in the relevant currency that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of such series in the relevant currency on their various due dates; and

 

   

deliver to the trustee a legal opinion of our counsel confirming that, under current United States federal income tax law, we may make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities of such series any differently than if we did not make the deposit and just repaid such debt securities ourselves at maturity.

If we accomplish covenant defeasance, you can still look to us for repayment of the debt securities if there were a shortfall in the trust deposit or the trustee is prevented from making payment. In fact, if one of the remaining Events of Default occurred (such as our bankruptcy) and the debt securities became immediately due and payable, there might be a shortfall. Depending on the event causing the default, you may not be able to obtain payment of the shortfall.

Full Defeasance

If there is a change in United States federal tax law, as described below, we can legally release ourselves from all payment and other obligations on the debt securities of a particular series (called “full defeasance”) if we put in place the following other arrangements for you to be repaid:

 

   

we must deposit in trust for the benefit of all holders of the debt securities of such series a combination of money and government or government agency debt securities or bonds in the relevant currency that will generate enough cash to make interest, principal and any other payments on the debt securities of such series in the relevant currency on their various due dates; and

 

   

we must deliver to the trustee a legal opinion confirming that there has been a change in current United States federal tax law or an Internal Revenue Service ruling that allows us to make the above deposit without causing you to be taxed on the debt securities of such series any differently than if we did not make the deposit and just repaid such debt securities ourselves at maturity. Under current United States federal tax law, the deposit and our legal release from the debt securities of such series would be treated as though we paid you your share of the cash and debt securities or bonds at the time the cash and debt securities or bonds were deposited in trust in exchange for your debt securities and you would recognize gain or loss on your debt securities at the time of the deposit.

If we ever did accomplish full defeasance, as described above, you would have to rely solely on the trust deposit for repayment of the debt securities of such series. You could not look to us for repayment in the unlikely event of any shortfall. Conversely, the trust deposit would most likely be protected from claims of our lenders and other creditors if we ever became bankrupt or insolvent.

 

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Covenant defeasance and full defeasance are both subject to certain conditions, such as no default or event of default occurring and continuing, and no breach of any material agreement.

Discharge of the Indenture

We may satisfy and discharge our obligations under the indenture by delivering to the trustee for cancellation all outstanding debt securities or by depositing with the trustee or the paying agent after the debt securities have become due and payable, whether at stated maturity, or any redemption or repayment date, or otherwise, cash sufficient to pay all of the outstanding debt securities and paying all other sums payable under the indenture.

No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees and Stockholders

No recourse for the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on any debt security or any coupons appertaining thereto, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, and no recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of ours in the indenture or in any supplemental indenture, or in any debt security or any coupons appertaining thereto, or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, shall be had against any director, officer, employee, or stockholder as such, past, present or future, of ours or any of our affiliates or any successor person, either directly or through us or any of our affiliates or any successor person, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that all such liability is hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of the indenture and the issue of the debt securities.

Governing Law

New York law will govern the indenture and the debt securities.

Form, Exchange and Transfer of Certificated Debt Securities

If registered debt securities cease to be issued in book-entry form, they will be issued:

 

   

only in fully registered certificated form,

 

   

without interest coupons, and

 

   

unless we indicate otherwise in the prospectus supplement or term sheet, in a minimum denomination of $2,000 and amounts above the minimum denomination that are integral multiples of $1,000.

Holders may exchange their certificated debt securities of smaller denominations or combined into fewer debt securities of larger denominations, as long as the total principal amount is not changed.

Holders may exchange or transfer their certificated debt securities at the office of the trustee. We have appointed the trustee to act as our agent for registering debt securities in the names of holders transferring debt securities. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.

Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their certificated securities, but they may be required to pay any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership.

If we have designated additional transfer agents for your debt security, they will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement or term sheet. We may appoint additional transfer agents or cancel the appointment of any particular transfer agent. We may also approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts.

 

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If any certificated debt securities of a particular series are redeemable and we redeem less than all the debt securities of that series, we may block the transfer or exchange of those debt securities during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of redemption and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers or exchanges of any certificated debt securities selected for redemption, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unredeemed portion of any debt security that will be partially redeemed.

If a registered debt security is issued in book-entry form, only the depositary will be entitled to transfer and exchange the debt security as described in this subsection, since it will be the sole holder of the debt security.

Resignation of Trustee

The trustee may resign or be removed at any time with respect to one or more series of indenture securities provided that a successor trustee is appointed to act with respect to these series. In the event that two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of indenture securities under the indenture, each of the trustees will be a trustee of a trust separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee.

The Trustee Under the Indenture

The trustee may be one of a number of banks with which we maintain ordinary banking relationships and from which we may obtain credit facilities and lines of credit in the future. The trustee may also serve as trustee under other indentures under which we are the obligor in the future.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of our preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or any combination thereof. Warrants may be issued independently or together with our preferred stock, common stock or debt securities and may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a bank or trust company, as warrant agent. The warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants. The warrant agent will not have any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants. This summary of certain provisions of the warrants is not complete. For the terms of a particular series of warrants, you should refer to the prospectus supplement for that series of warrants and the warrant agreement for that particular series.

The prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants to purchase such securities will describe the terms of the warrants, including the following:

 

   

the title of the warrants;

 

   

the offering price for the warrants, if any;

 

   

the aggregate number of warrants;

 

   

the designation and terms of the securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which the warrants and any securities issued with the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in registered form or bearer form;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the number and basic terms of the securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a warrant and the exercise price for the warrants;

 

   

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and expire;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

if applicable, a discussion of material U.S. federal income tax considerations;

 

   

the antidilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

   

the redemption or call provisions, if any, applicable to the warrants;

 

   

any provisions with respect to the holder’s right to require us to repurchase the warrants upon a change in control or similar event; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

 

   

to vote, consent or receive dividends;

 

   

receive notice as stockholders with respect to any meeting of stockholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or

 

   

exercise any rights as stockholders of us.

 

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Holders of warrants to purchase debt securities will not be entitled to payments of principal of, or any premium or interest on, the debt securities purchasable on exercise, or to exercise any of the rights of the holders of such debt securities until such warrant is exercised.

Exercise of Warrants

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

Holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent.

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

 

   

the title of the series of units;

 

   

identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;

 

   

the price or prices at which the units will be issued;

 

   

the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;

 

   

a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and

 

   

any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Units

To the extent applicable, each unit agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable unit agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any unit. A single bank or trust company may act as unit agent for more than one series of units. A unit agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable unit agreement or unit, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a unit may, without the consent of the related unit agent or the holder of any other unit, enforce by appropriate legal action its rights as holder under any security included in the unit.

We, any unit agents and any of their agents may treat the registered holder of any unit certificate as an absolute owner of the units evidenced by that certificate for any purpose and as the person entitled to exercise the rights attaching to the units so requested, despite any notice to the contrary. See “Legal Ownership of Securities.”

 

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LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES

We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee or depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.

Book-Entry Holders

We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.

Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.

As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.

Street Name Holders

We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.

For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not legal holders, of those securities.

Legal Holders

Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.

 

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For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so.

Special Considerations for Indirect Holders

If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

 

   

how it handles securities payments and notices;

 

   

whether it imposes fees or charges;

 

   

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

 

   

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a legal holder, if that is permitted in the future;

 

   

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

 

   

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.

Global Securities

A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.

Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, known as DTC, will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.

A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “— Special Situations When A Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.

If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.

Special Considerations For Global Securities

As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.

 

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If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

 

   

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;

 

   

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

 

   

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

 

   

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

 

   

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security. We and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security. We and the trustee also do not supervise the depositary in any way;

 

   

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

 

   

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities. There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.

Special Situations When A Global Security Will Be Terminated

In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.

A global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

 

   

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

 

   

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

 

   

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.

The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus in primary offerings (1) to or through underwriters or dealers, (2) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, (3) through agents, or (4) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices, or negotiated prices. The prospectus supplement will include the following information:

 

   

the terms of the offering;

 

   

the names of any underwriters or agents;

 

   

the name or names of any managing underwriter or underwriters;

 

   

the purchase price of the securities;

 

   

the net proceeds from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any delayed delivery arrangements;

 

   

any underwriting discounts, commissions and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;

 

   

any initial public offering price;

 

   

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any commissions paid to agents.

Sale through underwriters or dealers

If underwriters are used in the sale, the underwriters will acquire the securities for their own account, including through underwriting, purchase, security lending or repurchase agreements with us. The underwriters may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions. Underwriters may sell the securities in order to facilitate transactions in any of our other securities (described in this prospectus or otherwise), including other public or private transactions and short sales. Underwriters may offer securities to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by one or more managing underwriters or directly by one or more firms acting as underwriters. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to certain conditions, and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all the offered securities if they purchase any of them. The underwriters may change from time to time any initial public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the principal underwriters the respective amount of securities underwritten, the nature of the obligation of the underwriters to take the securities and the nature of any material relationship between an underwriter and us.

If dealers are used in the sale of securities offered through this prospectus, we will sell the securities to them as principals. They may then resell those securities to the public at varying prices determined by the dealers at the time of resale. The prospectus supplement will include the names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction.

Direct sales and sales through agents

We may sell the securities offered through this prospectus directly. In this case, no underwriters or agents would be involved. Such securities may also be sold through agents designated from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the offered securities and will describe any commissions payable to the agent by us. Unless otherwise indicated in the prospectus supplement, any agent will agree to use its reasonable best efforts to solicit purchases for the period of its appointment.

We may sell the securities directly to institutional investors or others who may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act with respect to any sale of those securities. The terms of any such sales will be described in the prospectus supplement.

 

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Delayed delivery contracts

If the prospectus supplement indicates, we may authorize agents, underwriters or dealers to solicit offers from certain types of institutions to purchase securities at the public offering price under delayed delivery contracts. These contracts would provide for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts would be subject only to those conditions described in the prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the commission payable for solicitation of those contracts.

Market making, stabilization and other transactions

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, each series of offered securities will be a new issue and will have no established trading market. We may elect to list any series of offered securities on an exchange. Any underwriters that we use in the sale of offered securities may make a market in such securities, but may discontinue such market making at any time without notice. Therefore, we cannot assure you that the securities will have a liquid trading market.

Any underwriter may also engage in stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Rule 104 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Stabilizing transactions involve bids to purchase the underlying security in the open market for the purpose of pegging, fixing or maintaining the price of the securities. Syndicate covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution has been completed in order to cover syndicate short positions.

Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a syndicate member when the securities originally sold by the syndicate member are purchased in a syndicate covering transaction to cover syndicate short positions. Stabilizing transactions, syndicate covering transactions and penalty bids may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would be in the absence of the transactions. The underwriters may, if they commence these transactions, discontinue them at any time.

Derivative transactions and hedging

We, the underwriters or other agents may engage in derivative transactions involving the securities. These derivatives may consist of short sale transactions and other hedging activities. The underwriters or agents may acquire a long or short position in the securities, hold or resell securities acquired and purchase options or futures on the securities and other derivative instruments with returns linked to or related to changes in the price of the securities. In order to facilitate these derivative transactions, we may enter into security lending or repurchase agreements with the underwriters or agents. The underwriters or agents may effect the derivative transactions through sales of the securities to the public, including short sales, or by lending the securities in order to facilitate short sale transactions by others. The underwriters or agents may also use the securities purchased or borrowed from us or others (or, in the case of derivatives, securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives) to directly or indirectly settle sales of the securities or close out any related open borrowings of the securities.

Electronic auctions

We may also make sales through the Internet or through other electronic means. Since we may from time to time elect to offer securities directly to the public, with or without the involvement of agents, underwriters or dealers, utilizing the Internet or other forms of electronic bidding or ordering systems for the pricing and allocation of such securities, you should pay particular attention to the description of that system we will provide in a prospectus supplement.

Such electronic system may allow bidders to directly participate, through electronic access to an auction site, by submitting conditional offers to buy that are subject to acceptance by us, and which may directly affect the price or other terms and conditions at which such securities are sold. These bidding or ordering systems may

 

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present to each bidder, on a so-called “real-time” basis, relevant information to assist in making a bid, such as the clearing spread at which the offering would be sold, based on the bids submitted, and whether a bidder’s individual bids would be accepted, prorated or rejected.

Upon completion of such an electronic auction process, securities will be allocated based on prices bid, terms of bid or other factors. The final offering price at which securities would be sold and the allocation of securities among bidders would be based in whole or in part on the results of the Internet or other electronic bidding process or auction.

General information

Agents, underwriters, and dealers may be entitled, under agreements entered into with us, to indemnification by us against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP, San Diego, California. Certain partners and certain investment partnerships comprised of partners of Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP own an interest representing less than one percent of the shares of our common stock. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as set forth in their report which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments to those reports, and other information that we file with or furnish to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can also be accessed free of charge through the Internet. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933 relating to the offering of these securities. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. The registration statement and the documents referred to below under “Incorporation by Reference” are also available on our website, www.tarsusrx.com. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this prospectus.

 

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INFORMATION INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus certain information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below that we have previously filed with the SEC (excluding any portions of any Form 8-K that are not deemed “filed” pursuant to the General Instructions of Form 8-K):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2021;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on May  11, 2021, and August 5, 2021, respectively;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021, June  21, 2021, June  22, 2021, and August 12, 2021 (each to the extent filed and not furnished);

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 from our definitive proxy statement relating to our 2021 annual meeting of stockholders, which was filed with the SEC on April 30, 2021; and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on October 13, 2020 pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the completion or termination of the offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC. Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus is deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement.

This prospectus may contain information that updates, modifies or is contrary to information in one or more of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus is delivered, upon written or oral request, at no cost to the requester, a copy of any and all of the information that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

You should direct any requests for documents to:

Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Attn: Investor Relations

15440 Laguna Canyon Road, Suite 160

Irvine, California 92618

(949) 409-9820

Our reports and documents incorporated by reference herein may also be found in the “Investors & News” section of our website at www.tarsusrx.com. Our website and the information contained in it or connected to it

 

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shall not be in this prospectus through our website at www.tarsusrx.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, the information on, or that can be accessed through, our website shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

 

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LOGO

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

 

 

 


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the Securities and Exchange Commission declares our registration statement effective. This prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED NOVEMBER 1, 2021

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

LOGO

Up to $100,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into an Open Market Sale AgreementSM, or the Sale Agreement, with Jefferies LLC, or Jefferies, dated November 1, 2021, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock, par value $0.0001 per share. In accordance with the terms of the Sale Agreement, under this prospectus supplement we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100 million from time to time through Jefferies, acting as our agent.

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TARS.” On October 28, 2021, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, was $28.27 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement may be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. Jefferies is not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of securities, but will act as sales agent and use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between us and Jefferies. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Jefferies will be entitled to a commission equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per common share sold under the Sale Agreement. In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to Jefferies with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. See “Plan of Distribution” beginning on page SA-14 for additional information regarding the compensation to be paid to Jefferies.

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES SIGNIFICANT RISKS. SEE “RISK FACTORS” BEGINNING ON PAGE SA-7 OF THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT AS WELL AS THE RISK FACTORS THAT ARE INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT FROM OUR FILINGS WITH THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION, BEFORE INVESTING IN ANY OF OUR SECURITIES.

NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR PASSED UPON THE ADEQUACY OR ACCURACY OF THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.

Jefferies

The date of this prospectus supplement is                 , 2021.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

 

     PAGE  

ABOUT THIS SALE AGREEMENT PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     SA-3  

THE OFFERING

     SA-6  

RISK FACTORS

     SA-7  

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     SA-9  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     SA-11  

DILUTION

     SA-12  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     SA-14  

LEGAL MATTERS

     SA-16  

EXPERTS

     SA-16  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     SA-16  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     SA-17  

 

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ABOUT THIS SALE AGREEMENT PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement relates to part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $300 million from time to time under this prospectus supplement at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

This prospectus supplement relates to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus supplement. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

We provide information to you about this offering of our common stock in two separate documents that are bound together: (1) this sale agreement prospectus supplement, which describes the specific details regarding this offering; and (2) the accompanying base prospectus, which provides general information, some of which may not apply to this offering. Generally, when we refer to this “prospectus,” we are referring to both documents combined. If information in this prospectus supplement is inconsistent with the accompanying base prospectus, you should rely on this prospectus supplement. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and Jefferies has not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and Jefferies is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the information incorporated herein or therein by reference contains market data, industry statistics and other data that have been obtained or compiled from information made available by independent third parties. We have not independently verified the accuracy and completeness of such data.

As used in this prospectus supplement, unless the context otherwise requires, references to “Tarsus,” “company,” “we,” “us” and “our” refer to Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

All trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this prospectus supplement are the property of their respective holders. Use or display by us of other parties’ trademarks, trade dress, or products in this prospectus supplement is not intended to, and does not, imply a relationship with, or endorsements or sponsorship of, us by the trademark or trade dress owners.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, our business, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our Company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, including the information set forth in the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the other documents that are filed after the date hereof and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus in their entirety before making an investment decision.

Overview

We are a late clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of therapeutic candidates to address large market opportunities initially in ophthalmic conditions where there are limited treatment alternatives. Our lead product candidate, TP-03, is a novel therapeutic in Phase 3 that is being developed for the treatment of blepharitis caused by the infestation of Demodex mites, which is referred to as Demodex blepharitis. Blepharitis (“Blephar” is a reference to eyelid and “itis” is a reference to inflammation) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the eyelid margin, redness and ocular irritation, including a specific type of eyelash dandruff called collarettes. The healthy interaction of the eyelid and the surface of the eye is crucial to ocular health. Poorly controlled and progressive blepharitis can lead to worsening of corneal damage over time and, in extreme cases, blindness.

We believe that TP-03 has the potential to be the first therapeutic approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, for the treatment of Demodex blepharitis and become the standard of care. The active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, of TP-03, lotilaner, is designed to paralyze and eradicate mites and other parasites through the inhibition of parasite-specific gamma-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride, or GABA-Cl channels.

We intend to further advance our pipeline with the lotilaner API to address several diseases across therapeutic categories in human medicine, including eye care, dermatology, and other diseases. These targeted diseases with high unmet medical needs currently include TP-03 for the treatment of Meibomian Glad Disease, TP-04 for the potential treatment of rosacea and TP-05 for the potential Lyme disease prophylaxis and community malaria reduction.

Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware on November 17, 2016. Our principal executive offices are located at 15440 Laguna Canyon Road, Suite 160, Irvine, California 92618. Our main telephone number is (949) 409-9820. Our website is www.tarsusrx.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, our website address is not part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference herein.

Trademarks

Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Tarsus, and our logo are some of our tradenames used in this prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. This prospectus supplement also includes trademarks, tradenames, and service marks that are the property of other organizations.


 

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Solely for convenience, our trademarks and tradenames referred to in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement appear without the or ® symbol, but those references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights, or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks and tradenames.

We are an Emerging Growth Company

We currently are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or JOBS Act. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest to occur of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer,” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the issuance, in any three-year period, by us of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities; and (iv) the last day of the fiscal year ending after the fifth anniversary of our initial public offering. As a result of this status, we have taken advantage of reduced reporting requirements in this prospectus supplement that are applicable to other publicly-traded entities that are not emerging growth companies and may elect to take advantage of other exemptions from reporting requirements in our future filings with the SEC. In addition, Section 107 of the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company may take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards, delaying the adoption of these accounting standards until they would apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption and, as a result, we will adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. Even after we no longer qualify as an emerging growth company, we may continue to qualify as a “smaller reporting company,” which would allow us to take advantage of many of the same exemptions from disclosure requirements including reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in this prospectus supplement and our periodic reports and proxy statements, if either (i) the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue is less than $100 million during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million.


 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000.

 

Common stock to be outstanding after this offering

Up to 24,111,270 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 3,537,319 shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $28.27 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 28, 2021. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.

 

Plan of Distribution

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our sales agent, Jefferies. See “Plan of Distribution” on page SA-14 of this prospectus supplement.

 

Use of Proceeds

 We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund the clinical development of our current product candidates, to develop or acquire new products or technologies that are complementary to our business (although have no such acquisition commitments as of the date of this prospectus supplement), and for our general corporate and working capital purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” on page SA-11 of this prospectus supplement.

 

Risk Factors

Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page SA-7 of this prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in other documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol

“TARS”

All information in this prospectus supplement related to the number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 20,573,951 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, and unless otherwise indicated, excludes:

 

   

2,598,764 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with a weighted-average exercise price of $15.40 per share;

 

   

130,153 shares of common stock which have been issued as of June 30, 2021 upon early exercise of stock options, but are not outstanding as they are subject to a right of repurchase;

 

   

151,731 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options granted after June 30, 2021, at a weighted-average exercise price of $23.28 per share;

 

   

9,451,191 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2020 Plan, as of June 30, 2021, which includes an annual evergreen increase; and

 

   

2,505,030 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the 2020 ESPP, as of June 30, 2021, which includes an annual evergreen increase.

Unless otherwise stated, all information contained in this prospectus supplement assumes no exercise of stock options after June 30, 2021 and reflects an assumed public offering price of $28.27, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 28, 2021.


 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock is speculative and involves a high degree of risk. Before investing in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks described below, together with the risks described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report, and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended June 30, 2021, each of which is incorporated by reference in its entirety, as well as the other information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, including our financial statements and the related notes thereto. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects could be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus supplement also contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including the risks described below. See “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related To This Offering

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return on your investment.

Our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds,” as well as our existing cash, and you will be relying on the judgment of our management regarding such application. You will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds are being used effectively. Our management might not apply the net proceeds or our existing cash in ways that ultimately increase the value of your investment. If we do not invest or apply the net proceeds from this offering or our existing cash in ways that enhance stockholder value, we may fail to achieve expected results, which could cause our stock price to decline. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term U.S. Treasury securities with insignificant rates of return. These investments may not yield a favorable return to our stockholders.

If you purchase our common stock in this offering, you will incur immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding at the time of sale. As of June 30, 2021, assuming that an aggregate of 3,537,319 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $28.27 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 28, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $100 million, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, investors in this offering would experience immediate dilution of $16.28 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share of $12.00, after giving effect to this offering, and the assumed offering price. For a further description of the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section titled “Dilution.”

Future sales or issuances of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception of such sales, could depress the trading price of our common stock.

The sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock or other equity-related securities in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We may sell large quantities of our common stock at any time pursuant to this prospectus supplement and/or in one or more separate offerings. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of common stock or other equity-related securities would have on the market price of our common stock.

 

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The actual number of shares we will issue under the Sale Agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the Sale Agreement entered into by us with Jefferies and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to Jefferies at any time throughout the term of the Sale Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by Jefferies after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common shares during the sales period and limits we set with Jefferies. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common shares during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued or the resulting gross proceeds.

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, and any free writing prospectus that we authorize for use in connection with this offering, contains and may contain certain statements that constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. The words “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “can,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” ‘intend,” “may,” “objective,” “ongoing,” “plan,” “potential,” “project,” “predict,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” and “would” and similar expressions and variations thereof are intended to identify forward-looking statements, but are not the exclusive means of identifying such statements. Those statements appear in this prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated herein therein by reference, particularly in the sections entitled “Prospectus Summary,” “Risk Factors,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Business,” and include statements regarding the intent, belief or current expectations of the Company and management that are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and assumptions.

Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

   

the likelihood of our clinical trials demonstrating safety and efficacy of our product candidates, and other positive results;

 

   

the timing and progress of our current clinical trials and timing of initiation of our future clinical trials, and the reporting of data from our current and future trials;

 

   

our plans relating to the clinical development of our current and future product candidates, including the size, number and disease areas to be evaluated;

 

   

the prevalence of Demodex blepharitis and the size of the market opportunity for our product candidates;

 

   

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our product candidates;

 

   

our plans relating to commercializing our product candidates, if approved, including sales strategy;

 

   

the impact of COVID-19 on our business and operations;

 

   

the success of competing therapies that are or may become available;

 

   

our estimates of the number of patients in the United States or globally, as applicable, who suffer from Demodex blepharitis, MGD, rosacea, Lyme disease and malaria and the number of patients that will enroll in our clinical trials;

 

   

the beneficial characteristics, safety, efficacy, therapeutic effects and potential advantages of our product candidates;

 

   

the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approval for our product candidates;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates and our product candidates to meet existing or future regulatory standards;

 

   

our plans relating to the further development and manufacturing of our product candidates, including additional indications for which we may pursue;

 

   

our ability to identify additional products, product candidates or technologies with significant commercial potential that are consistent with our commercial objectives;

 

   

the expected potential benefits of strategic collaborations with third parties (including but not limited to Elanco and LianBio) and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

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existing regulations and regulatory developments in the United States and other jurisdictions;

 

   

our plans and ability to obtain or protect intellectual property rights, including extensions of existing patent terms where available;

 

   

our continued reliance on third parties to conduct additional clinical trials of our product candidates, and for the manufacture of our product candidates for preclinical studies and clinical trials;

 

   

the need to hire additional personnel, in particular sales personnel, and our ability to attract and retain such personnel;

 

   

the accuracy of our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

   

our financial performance;

 

   

the sufficiency of our existing capital resources to fund our future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;

 

   

our competitive position;

 

   

our expectations regarding the period during which we will qualify as an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act; and

 

   

our anticipated use of our existing resources and the proceeds from this offering.

This prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement also contain statements that are based on the current expectations of our Company and management. You are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties, and that actual results may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of various factors.

Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. The risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those anticipated or implied in our forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those set forth under the section entitled “Risk Factors”, together with all of the other information appearing or incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Except as required by applicable law, including the securities laws of the United States and the rules and regulations of the SEC, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein after we distribute this prospectus supplement, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $100 million from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the Sale Agreement with Jefferies as a source of financing.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering to fund the clinical development of our current product candidates, to develop or acquire new products or technologies that are complementary to our business (although have no such acquisition commitments as of the date of this prospectus supplement), and for our general corporate and working capital purposes. We may invest the net proceeds from this offering in short-term U.S. Treasury securities with insignificant rates of return, or may hold such proceeds as cash, until required for these business expenditures. We have not yet determined the specific amounts of net proceeds to be used for each of these ongoing business activities. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds from this offering for its business use.

 

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DILUTION

Our historical net tangible book value as of June 30, 2021 was $192.5 million, or $9.36 per share. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the 20,573,951 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021.

After giving effect to the sale of 3,537,319 shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $28.27 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 28, 2021, and after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2021 would have been $289.2 million, or $12.00 per share. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $2.64 per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $16.28 per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering at the assumed public offering price. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:

 

Assumed public offering price per share

      $ 28.27  

Historical net tangible book value per share of as June 30, 2021

   $ 9.36     

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering

     2.64     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2021, after giving effect to this offering

        12.00  
     

 

 

 

Dilution per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering

      $ 16.28  
     

 

 

 

The number of shares of common stock outstanding is based on an aggregate of 20,573,951 shares outstanding as of June 30, 2021, and excludes:

 

   

2,598,764 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of June 30, 2021, with a weighted-average exercise price of $15.40 per share;

 

   

130,153 shares of common stock which have been issued as of June 30, 2021 upon early exercise of stock options, but are not outstanding as they are subject to a right of repurchase;

 

   

151,731 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options granted after June 30, 2021, at a weighted-average exercise price of $23.28 per share;

 

   

9,451,191 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Plan as of June 30, 2021, which includes an annual evergreen increase; and

 

   

2,505,030 shares of common stock reserved for issuance under our 2020 ESPP as of June 30, 2021, which includes an annual evergreen increase.

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 3,537,319 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the Sale Agreement with Jefferies at a price of $28.27 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on October 28, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $100 million. The shares subject to the Sale Agreement with Jefferies, if sold, may be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $28.27 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100 million during the term of the Sale Agreement with Jefferies is sold at that price, would increase our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to $12.06 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $17.22 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $28.27 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100 million during the term of the Sale Agreement with Jefferies is sold at that price, would decrease our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value

 

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per share to $11.93 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $15.34 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only and assumes no exercise of the options outstanding as of June 30, 2021. For more information, see “Description of Capital Stock” in the accompanying base prospectus.

To the extent that options outstanding as of June 30, 2021 have been or may be exercised or other shares issued, investors purchasing our common stock in this offering may experience further dilution. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into the Sale Agreement with Jefferies, under which we may offer and sell our shares of common stock from time to time through Jefferies acting as agent. Pursuant to this prospectus, we may offer and sell up to $100 million of our shares of common stock. Sales of our shares of common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus will be made by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.

Each time we wish to issue and sell our shares of common stock under the Sale Agreement, we will notify Jefferies of the number of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any limitation on the number of shares to be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made. Once we have so instructed Jefferies, unless Jefferies declines to accept the terms of such notice, Jefferies has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of Jefferies under the Sale Agreement to sell our shares of common stock are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

The settlement of sales of shares between us and Jefferies is generally anticipated to occur on the second trading day following the date on which the sale was made. Sales of our shares of common stock as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and Jefferies may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

We will pay Jefferies a commission equal to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds we receive from each sale of our shares of common stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. In addition, we have agreed to reimburse Jefferies for the fees and disbursements of its counsel, payable upon the execution of the Sale Agreement, in an amount not to exceed $75,000, in addition to certain ongoing disbursements of its legal counsel, unless we and Jefferies otherwise agree. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding any commissions or expense reimbursement payable to Jefferies under the terms of the Sale Agreement, will be approximately $265,000. The remaining sale proceeds, after deducting any other transaction fees, will equal our net proceeds from the sale of such shares.

Jefferies will provide written confirmation to us before the open on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on the day following each day on which our shares of common stock are sold under the Sale Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares sold on that day, the aggregate gross proceeds of such sales and the proceeds to us.

In connection with the sale of our shares of common stock on our behalf, Jefferies will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of Jefferies will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to indemnify Jefferies against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. We have also agreed to contribute to payments Jefferies may be required to make in respect of such liabilities.

The offering of our shares of common stock pursuant to the Sale Agreement will terminate as permitted in the Sale Agreement.

This summary of the material provisions of the Sale Agreement does not purport to be a complete statement of its terms and conditions. A copy of the Sale Agreement is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus supplement forms a part.

 

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Jefferies and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking, financial advisory and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. In the course of its business, Jefferies may actively trade our securities for its own account or for the accounts of customers, and, accordingly, Jefferies may at any time hold long or short positions in such securities.

A prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by Jefferies, and Jefferies may distribute the prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus electronically.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement will be passed upon by Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP, San Diego, California. Certain partners and certain investment partnerships comprised of partners of Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP own an interest representing less than one percent of the shares of our common stock. Jefferies LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as set forth in their report which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and other reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, and Current Reports on Form 8-K, including any amendments to those reports, and other information that we file with or furnish to the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act can also be accessed free of charge through the Internet. These filings will be available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement under the Securities Act relating to the offering of these securities. The registration statement, including the attached exhibits, contains additional relevant information about us and the securities. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement. The registration statement and the documents referred to below under “Incorporation by Reference” are also available on our website, www.tarsusrx.com. We have not incorporated by reference into this prospectus the information on our website, and you should not consider it to be a part of this prospectus.

 

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INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement certain information we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information by referring you to those documents. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus supplement, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede information contained in this prospectus supplement. We incorporate by reference the documents listed below that we have previously filed with the SEC (excluding any portions of any Form 8-K that are not deemed “filed” pursuant to the General Instructions of Form 8-K):

 

   

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2021;

 

   

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarterly periods ended March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on May  11, 2021, and August 5, 2021, respectively;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021, June  21, 2021, June  22, 2021, and August 12, 2021 (each to the extent filed and not furnished);

 

   

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 from our definitive proxy statement relating to our 2020 annual meeting of stockholders, which was filed with the SEC on April 30, 2021; and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on October 13, 2020 pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act.

We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus supplement additional documents that we may file with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act prior to the completion or termination of the offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information deemed furnished and not filed with the SEC. Any statements contained in a previously filed document incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement is deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus supplement to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus supplement, or in a subsequently filed document also incorporated by reference herein, modifies or supersedes that statement.

This prospectus supplement may contain information that updates, modifies or is contrary to information in one or more of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement. You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus supplement. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus supplement is accurate as of any date other than the date of this prospectus supplement or the date of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom this prospectus supplement is delivered, upon written or oral request, at no cost to the requester, a copy of any and all of the information that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

You should direct any requests for documents to:

Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Attn: Investor Relations

15440 Laguna Canyon Road, Suite 160

Irvine, California 92618

(949) 409-9820

 

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Our reports and documents incorporated by reference herein may also be found in the “Investors & News” section of our website at www.tarsusrx.com. Except for the specific incorporated documents listed above, the information on, or that can be accessed through, our website shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement or the registration statement of which it forms a part.

 

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LOGO

Up to $100,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

Jefferies

            , 2021

 

 

 


Table of Contents

Part II

Information Not Required in the Prospectus

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses (other than the actual registration fee and FINRA filing fee), other than underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by the registrant in connection with the sale of the securities being registered.

 

Securities and Exchange Commission registration fee

   $ 27,810  

FINRA filing fee

     45,500  

Accounting fees and expenses

     *  

Legal fees and expenses

     *  

Printing and engraving

     *  

Transfer agent fees and expenses

     *  

Miscellaneous expenses

     *  
  

 

 

 

Total

   $ *  
  

 

 

 

 

*

These fees cannot be estimated at this time, as they are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances. An estimate of the aggregate expenses in connection with the sale and distribution of the securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Section 102(b)(7) of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, allows a corporation to provide in its certificate of incorporation that a director of the corporation will not be personally liable to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except where the director breached the duty of loyalty, failed to act in good faith, engaged in intentional misconduct or knowingly violated a law, authorized the payment of a dividend or approved a stock repurchase in violation of Delaware corporate law or obtained an improper personal benefit.

Section 145(a) of the DGCL provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation or enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if he or she acted in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful.

Section 145(b) of the DGCL provides that a Delaware corporation may indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person acted in any of the capacities set forth above, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if he or she acted under similar standards, except that no indemnification may be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to be indemnified for such expenses which the court shall deem proper.

 

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Section 145 of the DGCL further provides that: (i) to the extent that a former or present director or officer of a corporation has been successful in the defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) or in the defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by him or her in connection therewith; (ii) indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which the indemnified party may be entitled; and (iii) the corporation may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any present or former director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation or any person who at the request of the corporation was serving in such capacity for another entity against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by him or her in any such capacity or arising out of his or her status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify him or her against such liabilities under Section 145.

The Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation specifies that a director of the Company shall not be personally liable to the Company or to any stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except to the extent such exemption from liability or limitation thereof is not permitted under the DGCL. Further, the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation also provides that if Delaware law is amended to authorize corporation action further eliminating or limiting the personal liability of directors, then the liability of the Company’s directors will be eliminated or limited to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law.

The Company’s Amended and Restated Bylaws provide that the Company shall indemnify its directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, as it now exists or may in the future be amended, against all expenses and liabilities reasonably incurred in connection with their service for or on the Company’s behalf. The Company’s amended and restated bylaws provide that the Company shall advance the expenses incurred by a director or officer in advance of the final disposition of an action or proceeding, and permit the Company to secure insurance on behalf of any director, officer, employee, or other enterprise agent for any liability arising out of his or her action in that capacity, whether or not Delaware law would otherwise permit indemnification.

The Company has entered into indemnification agreements with each of its directors and officers and certain other key employees. Subject to certain limited exceptions, under these agreements, the Company will be obligated to indemnify each of its directors, executive officers and other key employees against any and all expenses incurred by that director, executive officer, or other key employee because of his or her status as one of the Company’s directors, executive officers, or other key employees, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, the Company’s restated certificate of incorporation and our amended and restated bylaws. In addition, the form agreement provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, we will advance all expenses incurred by our directors, executive officers and other key employees in connection with a legal proceeding.

The Company also maintains liability insurance for its directors and officers in order to limit its exposure to liability for indemnification of such persons.

In any underwriting agreement the Company enters into in connection with the sale of the common stock being registered hereby, the underwriters may agree to indemnify, under certain conditions, the Company, its directors, its officers and persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, against certain liabilities.    

See also the undertakings set out in response to Item 17 herein.

 

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Item 16. Exhibits

 

Exhibit

Number

  

Description

   Form      File Number      Incorporated
by Reference
Exhibit
     Date      Filed
Herewith
 
  1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement.               
  1.2    Open Market Sale AgreementSM by and between the Registrant and Jefferies LLC.                  X  
  3.1    Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of Registrant.      8-K        001-39614        3.1        10/20/2020     
  3.2    Amended and Restated Bylaws of Registrant.      8-K        001-39614        3.2        10/20/2020     
  4.1    Form of Registrant’s common stock certificate.      S-1/A        333-249076        4.1        10/09/2020     
  4.2    Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement, dated September  24, 2020, by and among the Registrant and the other parties thereto.      S-1/A        333-249076        4.2        10/09/2020     
  4.3*    Certificate of designation, preferences and rights with respect to any preferred stock issued hereunder.               
  4.4*    Form of Warrant with respect to each warrant issued hereunder.               
  4.5    Form of Indenture with respect to the Securities.                  X  
  4.6*    Form of Note.               
  4.7*    Form of Unit Agreement.               
  5.1    Opinion of Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP.                  X  
  5.2    Opinion of Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP.                  X  
23.1    Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm.                  X  
23.2    Consent of Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP (included in Exhibits 5.1 and 5.2).                  X  
24.1    Power of Attorney (included on signature page).                  X  
25.1**    The Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Indenture will be incorporated herein by reference from a subsequent filing in accordance with Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.               

 

  *

To be filed by amendment or as an exhibit to a report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and incorporated herein by reference.

 

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  **

To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Item 17. Undertakings

 

  (a)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

  (1)

To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the SEC pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (a)(1)(ii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement.

 

  (2)

That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

 

  (A)

Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (B)

Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that

 

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  prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

  (iii)

The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

  (iv)

Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (6)

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (7)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the SEC such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding), is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

  (8)

To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

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Signatures

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement on Form S-3 to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in Irvine, State of California, on November 1, 2021.

 

Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
By:  

/s/ Bobak Azamian, M.D., Ph.D.

 

  Bobak Azamian, M.D., Ph.D.
  President and Chief Executive Officer

Power of Attorney

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Bobak Azamian, M.D., Ph.D. Leonard M. Greenstein and Bryan Wahl, M.D., and each of them acting individually, as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of each to act alone, with full powers of substitution and resubstitution, for him and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments to this registration statement on Form S-3 (including post-effective amendments and any related registration statements filed pursuant to Rule 462 and otherwise) with all exhibits thereto and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of each to act alone, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or his, her or their substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant and in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Bobak Azamian, M.D., Ph.D.

Bobak Azamian, M.D., Ph.D.

  

Chief Executive Officer, President and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

  November 1, 2021

/s/ Leonard M. Greenstein

Leonard M. Greenstein

   Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer)
  November 1, 2021

/s/ Michael Ackermann

Michael Ackermann

   Chairman   November 1, 2021

/s/ Bhaskar Chaudhuri, Ph.D.

Bhaskar Chaudhuri, Ph.D.

   Director   November 1, 2021

/s/ Rosemary Crane

Rosemary Crane

   Director   November 1, 2021

/s/ Andrew Goldberg, M.D.

Andrew Goldberg, M.D.

   Director   November 1, 2021

/s/ William J. Link, Ph.D.

William J. Link, Ph.D.

   Director   November 1, 2021

/s/ Wendy Yarno

Wendy Yarno

   Director   November 1, 2021

 

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EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

OPEN MARKET SALE AGREEMENTSM

November 1, 2021

JEFFERIES LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), proposes, subject to the terms and conditions stated herein, to issue and sell from time to time through Jefferies LLC, as sales agent and/or principal (the “Agent”), shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Shares”), on the terms set forth in this agreement (this “Agreement”).

Section 1. DEFINITIONS

(a) Certain Definitions. For purposes of this Agreement, capitalized terms used herein and not otherwise defined shall have the following respective meanings:

Agency Period” means the period commencing on the date of this Agreement and expiring on the earliest to occur of (x) the date on which the Agent shall have placed the Maximum Program Amount pursuant to this Agreement and (y) the date this Agreement is terminated pursuant to Section 7.

Commission” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

Floor Price” means the minimum price set by the Company in the Issuance Notice below which the Agent shall not sell Shares during the applicable period set forth in the Issuance Notice, which may be adjusted by the Company at any time during the period set forth in the Issuance Notice by delivering written notice of such change to the Agent and which in no event shall be less than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion.

Issuance Amount” means the aggregate Sales Price of the Shares to be sold by the Agent pursuant to any Issuance Notice.

Issuance Notice” means a written notice delivered to the Agent by the Company in accordance with this Agreement in the form attached hereto as Exhibit A that is executed by its Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer.

 

SM 

“Open Market Sale Agreement” is a service mark of Jefferies LLC


Issuance Notice Date” means any Trading Day during the Agency Period that an Issuance Notice is delivered pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

Issuance Price” means the Sales Price less the Selling Commission.

Maximum Program Amount” means Common Shares with an aggregate Sales Price of the lesser of (a) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares registered under the effective Registration Statement (defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) the number of authorized but unissued Common Shares (less Common Shares issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (c) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable), or (d) the number or dollar amount of Common Shares for which the Company has filed a Prospectus (defined below).

Person” means an individual or a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, joint stock company, governmental authority or other entity of any kind.

Principal Market” means the Nasdaq Global Select Market or such other national securities exchange on which the Common Shares, including any Shares, are then listed.

Sales Price” means the actual sale execution price of each Share placed by the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

Selling Commission” means three percent (3.0%) of the gross proceeds of Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement, or as otherwise agreed between the Company and the Agent with respect to any Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement.

Settlement Date” means the second business day following each Trading Day during the period set forth in the Issuance Notice on which Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement, when the Company shall deliver to the Agent the amount of Shares sold on such Trading Day and the Agent shall deliver to the Company the Issuance Price received on such sales.

Shares” shall mean the Company’s Common Shares issued or issuable pursuant to this Agreement.

Trading Day” means any day on which the Principal Market is open for trading.

 

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Section 2. REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES OF THE COMPANY

The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that as of (1) the date of this Agreement, (2) each Issuance Notice Date, (3) each Settlement Date, (4) each Triggering Event Date and (5) as of each Time of Sale (each of the times referenced above is referred to herein as a “Representation Date”), except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto) on or before a Representation Date:

(a) Registration Statement. The Company has prepared and will file with the Commission a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 that contains a base prospectus (the “Base Prospectus”). Such registration statement registers the issuance and sale by the Company of the Shares under the Securities Act. The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable, with respect to the Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, including all financial statements, exhibits and schedules thereto and all documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the Securities Act as from time to time amended or supplemented, is herein referred to as the “Registration Statement,” and the prospectus constituting a part of such registration statement(s), together with any prospectus supplement filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act relating to a particular issuance of the Shares, including all documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference pursuant to Item 12 of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, in each case, as from time to time amended or supplemented, is referred to herein as the “Prospectus,” except that if any revised prospectus is provided to the Agent by the Company for use in connection with the offering of the Shares that is not required to be filed by the Company pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, the term “Prospectus” shall refer to such revised prospectus from and after the time it is first provided to the Agent for such use. The Registration Statement at the time it originally became effective is herein called the “Original Registration Statement.” As used in this Agreement, the terms “amendment” or “supplement” when applied to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to include the filing by the Company with the Commission of any document under the Exchange Act after the date hereof that is or is deemed to be incorporated therein by reference.

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information which is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date; and all references in this Agreement to amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to mean and include, without limitation, the filing of any document under the Exchange Act which is or is deemed to be incorporated by reference in or otherwise deemed under the Securities Act to be a part of or included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, as of any specified date.

At the time the Original Registration Statement was or will be declared effective and at the time the Company’s most recent annual report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, if later, the Company met the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. During the Agency Period, each time the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K the Company will meet the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

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(b) Compliance with Registration Requirements. The Original Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been or will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, are contemplated or threatened by the Commission.

The Prospectus when filed complied or will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and, if filed with the Commission through its Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval system (“EDGAR”) (except as may be permitted by Regulation S T under the Securities Act), was identical to the copy thereof delivered to the Agent for use in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective and at each Representation Date, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. As of the date of this Agreement, the Prospectus and any Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) considered together (collectively, the “Time of Sale Information”) did not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date and at each Representation Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the three immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to the Agent furnished to the Company in writing by the Agent expressly for use therein, it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information described in Section 6 below. There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of the Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said rule.

(c) Ineligible Issuer Status. The Company is not an “ineligible issuer” in connection with the offering of the Shares pursuant to Rules 164, 405 and 433 under the Securities Act. Any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company is required to file pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act has been, or will be, filed with the Commission in accordance with the requirements of the Securities Act. Each Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used or referred to by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of Rule 433 under the Securities Act including timely filing with the Commission or retention where required and legending, and each such Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date

 

4


and at all subsequent times through the completion of the issuance and sale of the Shares did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts with or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any document incorporated by reference therein. Except for the Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, and electronic road shows, if any, furnished to the Agent before first use, the Company has not prepared, used or referred to, and will not, without the Agent’s prior consent, prepare, use or refer to, any Free Writing Prospectus.

(d) Incorporated Documents. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, at the time they were filed with the Commission, complied in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, as applicable, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, do not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(e) Exchange Act Compliance. The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, and any Free Writing Prospectus or amendment or supplement thereto complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the time the Registration Statement and any amendments thereto become effective and at each Time of Sale (as defined below), as the case may be, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(f) Emerging Growth Company Status. As of the date hereof, the Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”). During the Agency Period, the Company agrees to notify the Agent as soon as practicable upon the Company ceasing to be an Emerging Growth Company; provided, however, that no such notice shall be required if the Company has disclosed in its public filings with the Commission that it no longer expects to be, or no longer is, an Emerging Growth Company.

(g) Independent Accountants. The accountants who audited the financial statements and supporting schedules, if any, included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are an independent registered public accounting firm as required by the Securities Act and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.

(h) Financial Statements. The financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related schedules and notes, present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries at the dates indicated and the statement of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries for the periods specified; said financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved.

 

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The supporting schedules, if any, present fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with GAAP the information required to be stated therein. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. Except as included therein, no historical or pro forma financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus under the Securities Act.

(i) No Material Adverse Change in Business. Except as otherwise stated therein, since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, (A) there has been no material adverse change in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business affairs or business prospects of the Company and its subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business (a “Material Adverse Effect”), (B) there have been no transactions entered into by the Company or any of its subsidiaries, other than those in the ordinary course of business, which are material with respect to the Company and its subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, and (C) there has been no dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company on any class of its capital stock.

(j) Good Standing of the Company. The Company has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware and has corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement; and the Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure so to qualify or to be in good standing would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(k) Subsidiaries. Each of the Company’s “subsidiaries” (for purposes of this Agreement, as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), if any, has been duly incorporated or organized, as the case may be, and is validly existing as a corporation, partnership or limited liability company, as applicable, in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization and has the power and authority (corporate or other) to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. Each of the Company’s subsidiaries is duly qualified as a foreign corporation, partnership or limited liability company, as applicable, to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business. All of the issued and outstanding capital stock or other equity or ownership interests of each of the Company’s subsidiaries have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and are owned by the Company, directly or through subsidiaries, free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim. None of the outstanding capital stock or equity interest in any subsidiary was issued in violation of preemptive or similar rights of any security holder of such subsidiary. The constitutive or organizational documents of each of the subsidiaries comply in all material respects with the requirements of applicable laws of its jurisdiction of incorporation or organization and are in full force and effect. The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21 to the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 

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(l) Dividend Restrictions. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, no subsidiary of the Company is prohibited or restricted, directly or indirectly, from paying dividends to the Company, or from making any other distribution with respect to such subsidiary’s equity securities or from repaying to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company any amounts that may from time to time become due under any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any property or assets to the Company or to any other subsidiary.

(m) Capitalization. The authorized, issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are, as of the dates set forth therein, as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (except for subsequent issuances, if any, pursuant to this Agreement, pursuant to reservations, agreements or employee benefit plans referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or pursuant to the exercise of convertible securities or options referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus). The outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly authorized and validly issued and are fully paid and non-assessable. None of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company were issued in violation of the preemptive or other similar rights of any securityholder of the Company that have not been complied with or validly waived.

(n) Authorization of Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(o) Stock Exchange Listing. The Common Shares are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or 12(g) of the Exchange Act and are listed on the Principal Market, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Shares under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Shares from the Principal Market, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Principal Market is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. To the Company’s knowledge, and except as otherwise described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, the Company is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Principal Market.

(p) Authorization and Description of Shares. The Shares have been duly authorized for issuance and sale by the Agent pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company pursuant to this Agreement against payment of the consideration set forth herein, will be validly issued and fully paid and non-assessable; and the issuance of the Shares is not subject to the preemptive or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase the Shares. The Common Shares conform, in all material respects, to all statements relating thereto contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and such description conforms, in all material respects, to the rights set forth in the instruments defining the same. No holder of Shares will be subject to personal liability solely by reason of being such a holder.

(q) Registration Rights. There are no persons with registration rights or other similar rights to have any securities registered for sale pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise registered for sale or sold by the Company under the Securities Act pursuant to this Agreement other than those rights that have been waived.

 

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(r) Absence of Violations, Defaults and Conflicts. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (A) in violation of its charter, by-laws or similar organizational document, (B) in default in the performance or observance of any obligation, agreement, covenant or condition contained in any contract, indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan or credit agreement, note, lease or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which it or any of them may be bound or to which any of the properties or assets of the Company or any subsidiary is subject (collectively, “Agreements and Instruments”), except for such defaults that would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or (C) in violation of any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any arbitrator, court, governmental body, regulatory body, administrative agency or other authority, body or agency having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their respective properties, assets or operations (each, a “Governmental Entity”), except for such violations that would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated herein and in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (including the issuance and sale of the Shares and the use of the proceeds from the sale of the Shares as described therein under the caption “Use of Proceeds”) and compliance by the Company with its obligations hereunder have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and do not and will not, whether with or without the giving of notice or passage of time or both, conflict with or constitute a breach of, or default or Repayment Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any properties or assets of the Company or any subsidiary pursuant to, the Agreements and Instruments (except for such conflicts, breaches, defaults or Repayment Events or liens, charges or encumbrances that would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect), nor will such action result in any violation of (x) the provisions of the charter, by-laws or similar organizational document of the Company or any of its subsidiaries or (y) any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any Governmental Entity, except, in the case of clause (y), for such violations as would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. As used herein, a “Repayment Event” means any event or condition which gives the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company or any of its subsidiaries.

(s) Absence of Labor Dispute. No labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or any subsidiary’s principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors, which, in either case, singly or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(t) Absence of Proceedings. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there is no action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation before or brought by any Governmental Entity (including, without limitation, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”) and the European Medicines Agency (the “EMA”)) now pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened, against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries, which, singly or in the aggregate, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or which

 

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would reasonably be expected to materially and adversely affect their respective properties or assets or the consummation of the transactions contemplated in this Agreement or the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder; and the aggregate of all pending legal or governmental actions, suits, inquiries, investigations or proceedings to which the Company or any such subsidiary is a party or of which any of their respective properties or assets is the subject which are not described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(u) Accuracy of Exhibits. There are no contracts or documents which are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been so described and filed as required.

(v) Absence of Further Requirements. No filing with, or authorization, approval, consent, license, order, registration, qualification or decree of, any Governmental Entity is necessary or required for the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, in connection with the offering, issuance or sale of the Shares hereunder or the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except (A) such as have been already obtained or as may be required under the Securities Act, the rules of the Principal Market, state securities laws or the rules of FINRA.

(w) Possession of Licenses and Permits. The Company and its subsidiaries possess such permits, licenses, approvals, clearances, certificates, consents and other authorizations issued by the appropriate Governmental Entities necessary to conduct the business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, “Governmental Licenses”), except where the failure so to possess would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms and conditions of all such Governmental Licenses, except where the failure so to comply would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. All such Governmental Licenses are valid and in full force and effect, except where the invalidity of such Governmental Licenses or the failure of such Governmental Licenses to be in full force and effect would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any written notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any such Governmental Licenses which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and its subsidiaries (i) are, and at all times have been, in compliance with all applicable statutes, rules and regulations applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any product manufactured or distributed by them (“Applicable Laws”), except where such noncompliance would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; and (ii) have not received any FDA Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting noncompliance with (x) any Applicable Laws or (y) any Governmental Licenses required by any such Applicable Laws, except where being in contravention of any of the foregoing representations or warranties, singly or in the aggregate, would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

 

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(x) Title to Property. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all real property owned by them and good title to all other properties owned by them, in each case, free and clear of all mortgages, pledges, liens, security interests, claims, restrictions or encumbrances of any kind except such as (A) are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or (B) do not, singly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its subsidiaries; and all of the leases and subleases material to the business of the Company and its subsidiaries, considered as one enterprise, and under which the Company or any of its subsidiaries holds properties described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, are in full force and effect, and neither the Company nor any such subsidiary has received any notice of any material claim of any sort that has been asserted by anyone adverse to the rights of the Company or any subsidiary under any of the leases or subleases mentioned above, or affecting or questioning the rights of the Company or such subsidiary to the continued possession of the leased or subleased premises under any such lease or sublease.

(y) Possession of Intellectual Property. Except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, the Company and its subsidiaries own or possess, have a valid license to, or can acquire on reasonable terms, all patents, patent applications, statutory invention rights, community designs, invention disclosures, rights in utility models and industrial designs, inventions, registered and unregistered copyrights (including copyrights in software), trademarks, service marks, business names, trade names, logos, slogans, trade dress, design rights, Internet domain names, social media accounts, any other designations of source or origin, intellectual property rights in technology, software, data and know how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures), and any applications (including provisional applications), registrations, or renewals for any of the foregoing, together with the goodwill associated with any of the foregoing, rights to publicity and privacy and/or other intellectual property (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) necessary to carry on the business now operated by them and as proposed to be operated as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. Except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, (i) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any notice of nor, to the knowledge of the Company, has engaged in any infringement, misappropriation or other violation of or conflict regarding any Intellectual Property of any third party, (ii) there is no pending or threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim regarding the subject matter of the foregoing clause (i), and (iii) the Company and its subsidiaries are unaware of any facts or circumstances which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim. (a) Except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, all Intellectual Property owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company or any of its subsidiaries (such Intellectual Property, the “Company Intellectual Property”) is subsisting, and to the Company’s knowledge, valid and enforceable, (b) there is no pending or threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by any third party challenging the Company’s or any of its subsidiaries’ rights in, or the validity, ownership, registrability, enforceability or scope of, any such Company Intellectual Property (with the exception of ordinary course office actions in connection with applications for the registration or issuance of such Intellectual Property) and (c) the Company and its subsidiaries are unaware of any facts or circumstances which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim. To the knowledge of the Company, no third party is infringing, misappropriating or otherwise violating any of the Company Intellectual Property and there is no pending or threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by the Company or any of its subsidiaries against a third party regarding the

 

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foregoing. (1) The Company and its subsidiaries have complied in all material respects with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or its subsidiaries, (2) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received any written notice alleging any such noncompliance and are unaware of any facts or circumstances which would form a reasonable basis for any such claim, and (3) all such agreements are in full force and effect. Except as would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, no Intellectual Property has been obtained or is being used by the Company or its subsidiaries in violation of any material contractual obligations binding on the Company or such subsidiaries or in violation of any contractual rights of any person. All filing actions and registration, maintenance, annuity and renewal fees needed to be taken, met or paid in order to prosecute or maintain the Company Intellectual Property have been timely taken, met or paid, and there are no material defects with respect to any such filings, payments or actions. Each person who is or was an employee or contractor of the Company or any of its subsidiaries and who is, was or is expected to be involved in the creation or development of any Intellectual Property for or on behalf of the Company or such subsidiaries has executed a valid written agreement effectively assigning to the Company or any of its subsidiaries all of such person’s rights in and to such Intellectual Property and no employee of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is in or has ever been in violation of any term of any agreement with or covenant to a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company or any of its subsidiaries or actions undertaken by the employee while employed with the Company or any of its subsidiaries. The Company and its subsidiaries have taken all reasonable steps necessary to maintain and protect the confidentiality of the material trade secrets and other material confidential Company Intellectual Property and non-exclusively-licensed Intellectual Property used in connection with the business of the Company and its subsidiaries and, to the Company’s knowledge, the confidentiality of such material trade secrets and material confidential Intellectual Property has not been compromised or disclosed to or accessed by any third party except pursuant to appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements. No university, military, educational institution, research center, Governmental Authority or other organization has funded, contributed to or sponsored research and development conducted in connection with the business of the Company or any of its subsidiaries that (i) has any claim of right to, ownership of or other lien on any Company Intellectual Property or (ii) would affect the proprietary nature of any Company Intellectual Property or restrict the ability of the Company or any of its subsidiaries to enforce, license or exclude others from using any Company Intellectual Property.

(z) Environmental Laws. Except as would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (A) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of any applicable federal, state, local or foreign statute, law, rule, regulation, ordinance, code, policy or rule of common law or any judicial or administrative interpretation thereof, including any judicial or administrative order, consent decree or judgment, relating to pollution or protection of human health and safety (including occupational health and safety), sustainability, the environment (including, without limitation, ambient air, surface water, groundwater, land surface or subsurface strata), natural resources or wildlife, including, without limitation, laws and regulations relating to the release or threatened release of, or exposure to, chemicals, pollutants, contaminants, wastes, toxic substances, hazardous substances, radioactive substances, petroleum, petroleum products, asbestos-containing materials, polychlorinated biphenyls, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, greenhouse gases or mold (collectively, “Hazardous Materials”) or to the manufacture, processing, distribution, use, treatment, storage,

 

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disposal, transport, discharge, emission or handling of Hazardous Materials (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), (B) the Company and its subsidiaries have all permits, authorizations, registrations and approvals required under any applicable Environmental Laws and are each in compliance with their requirements, (C) there are no pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened administrative, regulatory or judicial actions, suits, demands, demand letters, claims, liens, notices of noncompliance or violation, investigations or proceedings relating to any Environmental Law or Hazardous Materials against the Company or any of its subsidiaries and (D) to the knowledge of the Company, there are no events or circumstances that would reasonably be expected to form the basis of an order for clean-up or remediation, or an action, suit or proceeding by any private party or Governmental Entity, against or affecting the Company or any of its subsidiaries relating to Hazardous Materials or any Environmental Laws.

(aa) Accounting Controls. The Company and each of its subsidiaries maintain effective internal control over financial reporting (as defined under Rules 13-a15 and 15d-15 under the Exchange Act) and a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurances that (A) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (B) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (C) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (D) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (E) the interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (1) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (2) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially and adversely affected, or is reasonably likely to materially and adversely affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. The Company is not aware of any change in its internal control over financial reporting that has occurred during its most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(bb) Compliance with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company has taken all necessary actions to ensure that, upon the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, it will be in compliance in all material respects with all provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder or implementing the provisions thereof (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) that are then in effect and with which the Company is required to comply as of the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, and is taking steps to ensure that it will be in compliance with other provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act not currently in effect, upon the effectiveness of such provisions, or which will become applicable to the Company at all times after the effectiveness of the Registration Statement.

(cc) Payment of Taxes. All United States federal, state, local and non-U.S. income tax returns of the Company and its subsidiaries required by law to be filed have been filed as of the date hereof (after giving effect to any extensions provided by law that have been requested) and all taxes shown by such returns or otherwise assessed, which are due and payable, have been paid,

 

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except assessments against which appeals have been or will be promptly taken in good faith by the Company and as to which adequate reserves have been provided in accordance with GAAP by the Company except insofar as the failure to pay such taxes would not reasonably be expected, singly or in the aggregate, to result in a Material Adverse Effect. The United States federal, state, local and non-U.S. income tax returns of the Company and its subsidiaries through the Company’s most recent annual fiscal year for which it has filed an annual report on Form 10-K have been settled and no assessment in connection therewith has been made against the Company or its subsidiaries, as applicable. The Company and its subsidiaries have filed all other tax returns that are required to have been filed by them pursuant to applicable foreign, federal, state, local or other law except insofar as the failure to file such returns would not, singly or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect, and has paid all taxes due pursuant to such returns or pursuant to any assessment received by the Company and its subsidiaries, except for such taxes, if any, as are being contested in good faith and as to which adequate reserves have been established by the Company and except insofar as the failure to pay such taxes would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. The charges, accruals and reserves on the books of the Company in respect of any income and corporation tax liability for any years not finally determined are adequate to meet any assessments or re-assessments for additional income tax for any years not finally determined, except to the extent of any inadequacy that would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(dd) Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries carry or are entitled to the benefits of insurance, with financially sound and reputable insurers, in such amounts and covering such risks as is generally maintained by companies of established repute engaged in the same or similar business and at the same or similar stage of development, and all such insurance is in full force and effect. The Company has no reason to believe that it or any of its subsidiaries will not be able (A) to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such policies expire or (B) to obtain comparable coverage from similar institutions as may be necessary or appropriate to conduct its business as now conducted and at a cost that would not, singly or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has been denied any insurance coverage which it has sought or for which it has applied.

(ee) Investment Company Act. The Company is not required, and upon the issuance and sale of the Shares as herein contemplated and the application of the net proceeds therefrom as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will not be required, to register as an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).

(ff) Absence of Manipulation. Neither the Company nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any affiliate of the Company has taken, nor will the Company or any affiliate take, directly or indirectly, any action which is designed, or would reasonably be expected, to cause or result in, or which constitutes, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or to result in a violation of Regulation M under the Exchange Act.

 

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(gg) Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. None of the Company, any of its subsidiaries or, to the knowledge of the Company, any director or officer of the Company or its subsidiaries, as applicable, agent, employee, affiliate or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that would result in a violation by such persons of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “FCPA”), including, without limitation, making use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce corruptly in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay or authorization of the payment of any money, or other property, gift, promise to give, or authorization of the giving of anything of value to any “foreign official” (as such term is defined in the FCPA) or any foreign political party or official thereof or any candidate for foreign political office, in contravention of the FCPA and the Company and, to the knowledge of the Company, its affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

(hh) Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all applicable jurisdictions, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any Governmental Entity (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”); and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any Governmental Entity involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened.

(ii) OFAC. None of the Company, any of its subsidiaries, director or officer or, to the knowledge of the Company, any director or officer of the Company or its subsidiaries, as applicable, agent, employee, affiliate or representative of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a Person currently the subject or target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the United States Government, including, without limitation, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”), the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor is the Company located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions; and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the sale of the Shares, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiaries, joint venture partners or other Person, to fund any activities of or business with any Person, or in any country or territory, that, at the time of such funding, is the subject of Sanctions or in any other manner that will result in a violation by any Person (including any Person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions.

(jj) Lending Relationship. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company (i) does not have any material lending or other relationship with any bank or lending affiliate of the Agent and (ii) does not intend to use any of the proceeds from the sale of the Shares to repay any outstanding debt owed to any affiliate of the Agent.

(kk) Statistical and Market-Related Data. Any statistical and market-related data included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes, after reasonable inquiry, to be reliable and accurate in all material respects and, to the extent required, the Company has obtained the written consent to the use of such data from such sources.

 

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(ll) Information Technology, Cybersecurity and Data Protection. (A) There has been no security breach or incident, unauthorized access or disclosure, or other compromise of or relating to the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ information technology and computer systems, networks, hardware, software, data and databases (including personally identifiable information or protected health information as required by any Healthcare Laws and the data and information of their respective patients, customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained, processed or stored by the Company or its subsidiaries, and any such data processed or stored by third parties on behalf of the Company or its subsidiaries), equipment or technology (collectively, “IT Systems and Data”); (B) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries have been notified of, nor have any knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in, any security breach or incident, unauthorized access or disclosure of or other compromise to their IT Systems and Data and, to the Company’s knowledge, no Person has claimed or threatened to claim compensation from the Company or any of its subsidiaries for breaches of IT Systems and Data; and (C) the Company and its subsidiaries have implemented appropriate controls, policies, procedures, and technological safeguards designed to maintain and protect the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy, disaster recovery and security of their IT Systems and Data reasonably consistent with industry standards and practices, or as required by applicable Data Protection Laws, Healthcare Laws and regulatory standards, except with respect to clauses (A) and (B), for any such security breach or incident, unauthorized access or disclosure or other compromise, as would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. The IT Systems and Data are adequate and operational for, in accordance with their documentation and functional specifications, the business of the Company and its subsidiaries as now operated and as currently proposed to be operated as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus. The Company and its subsidiaries are presently in compliance in all material respects with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Data, including the collection, use, transfer, processing, disposal, disclosure, handling, storage and analysis of personally identifiable information, protected health information, consumer information and other confidential information of the Company, its subsidiaries and any third parties in their possession (“Sensitive Company Data”), and to the protection of such IT Systems and Data and Sensitive Company Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification. The Company and its subsidiaries have not received any written notice, claim, complaint, demand or letter from any Person or Governmental Authority in respect of their businesses under applicable Data Protection Laws (as defined below) and regulations and industry standards regarding misuse, loss, unauthorized destruction or unauthorized disclosure of any Sensitive Company Data. To the Company’s knowledge, there has been no unauthorized or illegal use of or access to any Sensitive Company Data by any third party. The Company and its subsidiaries have not been required to notify any individual or data protection authority of any information security breach, compromise or incident involving Sensitive Company Data and, to the Company’s knowledge, are not the subject of any inquiry or investigation by any Governmental Authority or data protection authority regarding any of the foregoing. “Data Protection Laws” means (a) all applicable laws related to data privacy, data protection or data security (including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Regulation (EU) 2016/79 of the European Parliament and of the Council (General Data Protection Regulation) and any implementation acts related thereto and the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018), and the

 

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requirements and guidance set forth in regulations, guidelines and agreements containing consent orders published by regulatory authorities such as the Federal Trade Commission, Federal Communications Commission, the FDA, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and applicable European Union data protection authorities, in each case of the foregoing, as amended, replaced or updated from time to time; (b) all privacy policies of the Company and its subsidiaries; and (c) all third party privacy policies that the Company or any of its subsidiaries has been or is contractually obligated to comply with.

(mm) No Rated Securities. Neither the Company nor its subsidiaries have any debt securities or preferred stock that are rated by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” (as defined in Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act).

(nn) ERISA Compliance. Except as would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, (A) the Company and its subsidiaries and any “Employee Benefit Plan” (as defined under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations promulgated thereunder (collectively, “ERISA”)) for which the Company, its subsidiaries or its or their “ERISA Affiliates” (as defined below) would have any liability (each, a “Plan”) are in compliance in all respects with ERISA and each Plan has been established and maintained in compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to, ERISA and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (the “Code”), (B) no “reportable event” (as defined under ERISA) has occurred or is reasonably expected to occur with respect to any Plan, (C) no Plan, if such Plan were terminated, would have any “amount of unfunded benefit liabilities” (as defined under ERISA), as the fair market value of the assets under each Plan (excluding for these purposes accrued but unpaid contributions) exceeds the present value of all benefits accrued under such Plan (determined based on those assumptions used to fund such Plan), (D) neither the Company, its subsidiaries nor any of its or their ERISA Affiliates has incurred or reasonably expects to incur any obligation or liability under (i) Title IV of ERISA with respect to termination of, or withdrawal from, any Plan, (ii) Sections 412 and 430, 4971, 4975 or 4980B of the Code or (iii) Sections 302 and 303, 406, 4063 and 4064 of ERISA, (E) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified and nothing has occurred, whether by action or failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification, (F) there is no pending audit or investigation by the Internal Revenue Service, the U.S. Department of Labor, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation or any other governmental or foreign regulatory entity or agency with respect to any Plan that would reasonably be expected to result in liability to the Company or any of its subsidiaries, and (G) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries have any “accumulated post-retirement benefit obligations” (within the meaning of Statement of Financial Accounting Standards 106). “ERISA Affiliate” means, with respect to the Company, any member of any group of organizations described in Sections 414(b), (c), (m) or (o) of the Code of which the Company or such subsidiary is a member.

 

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(oo) Regulatory Matters. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: (i) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries has received any written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the FDA, the EMA or other relevant regulatory authorities, or any other court or arbitrator or federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory authority, alleging or asserting material noncompliance with the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 301 et seq.), as amended, and the regulations promulgated thereunder (the “FFDCA”), the Anti-Kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. Section 1320a-7b(b)), the Civil Monetary Penalties Law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a), the Physician Payment Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), the Civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. Section 3729 et seq.), the criminal False Claims Law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), all criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287, and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) (42 U.S.C. Section 1320d et seq.), the exclusion laws (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7), HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. Section 17921 et seq.), Medicare (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act), Medicaid (Title XIX of the Social Security Act), and any and all other similar state, federal or foreign law or regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws, including all laws and regulations applicable to ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of the Company’s product candidates, each as amended from time to time (collectively, “Health Care Laws”); (ii) the Company and its subsidiaries are and have been in compliance with applicable Health Care Laws, except where instances of non-compliance would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; (iii) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any U.S. or non-U.S. federal, national, state, local or other governmental or regulatory authority, governmental or regulatory agency or body, court, arbitrator or self-regulatory organization (each, a “Governmental Authority”) or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Health Care Laws and, to the Company’s knowledge, no such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action is threatened; (iv) the Company and its subsidiaries have filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by applicable Health Care Laws, and all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete, correct and not misleading on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); (v) neither the Company nor its subsidiaries or any of their respective directors, officers, employees or agents is or has been debarred, suspended or excluded, or has been convicted of any crime or engaged in any conduct that would result in a debarment, suspension or exclusion from any federal or state government health care program or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that would reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion; and (vi) the Company is not a party to and the Company does not have any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to, any corporate integrity agreements, deferred prosecution agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, plans of correction or similar agreements with or imposed by an Governmental Authority.

(pp) Preclinical Studies and Clinical Trials. The preclinical studies and clinical trials conducted by, on behalf of or sponsored by the Company or its subsidiaries, or in which the Company or its subsidiaries has participated, that are described in, or the results of which are referred to in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as applicable, were, and if still pending are, being conducted in accordance with the experimental protocols established for each study or trial, as well as any conditions of approval and policies imposed by any institutional review board, ethics review board or committee responsible for the oversight of such preclinical

 

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studies and clinical trials, and all applicable local, state and federal laws, rules and regulations of the FDA, the EMA and comparable drug regulatory agencies outside of the United States to which they are subject (such institutional review boards, ethics review boards, committees, the FDA, the EMA or any comparable regulatory agencies, collectively, the “Regulatory Authorities”) and all other applicable Health Care Laws, except as would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; the descriptions in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus of the results of such studies and trials are accurate and not misleading in all material respects with respect to the portions of such studies and trials being described and fairly present the data derived from such studies or trials in all material respects; the Company has no knowledge of any other preclinical studies or clinical trials not described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the results of which would reasonably call into question in any material respect the results of the preclinical studies and clinical trials described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus when viewed in the context in which such results are described and the current state of development; neither the Company nor its subsidiaries have received any written notice, correspondence or other communications from the Regulatory Authorities requiring or threatening (i) the termination or suspension or clinical hold of any preclinical studies or clinical trials that are described in, or the results of which are referred to in, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, or (ii) the material modification of any preclinical studies or clinical trials that would cause them to materially differ from their descriptions in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such preclinical studies or clinical trials, and, to the Company’s knowledge, there are no reasonable grounds for the same.

(qq) Health Care Products Manufacturing. The manufacture of the Company’s and its subsidiaries’ product candidates by or on behalf of the Company and its subsidiaries is being conducted in compliance in all material respects with all applicable Health Care Laws, including, without limitation, the FDA’s current good manufacturing practice regulations at 21 CFR Part 820, and, to the extent applicable, the respective counterparts thereof promulgated by governmental authorities in countries outside the United States. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has had any manufacturing site (whether Company-owned, subsidiary-owned or that of a third party manufacturer for the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ product candidates) subject to a Governmental Authority (including FDA or EMA) shutdown or import or export prohibition, nor received any FDA, EMA or other Governmental Authority “warning letters,” or “untitled letters” alleging or asserting material noncompliance with any applicable Health Care Laws, requests to make material changes to the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ product candidates, processes or operations, or similar correspondence or notice from the FDA, EMA or other Governmental Authority alleging or asserting material noncompliance with any applicable Health Care Laws, other than those that have been satisfactorily addressed and/or closed with the FDA, EMA or other Governmental Authority. To the knowledge of the Company, neither the FDA, EMA or any other Governmental Authority is considering such action.

(rr) No Safety Notices. (i) There have been no recalls, field notifications, field corrections, market withdrawals or replacements, warnings, “dear doctor” letters, investigator notices, safety alerts or other notice of action relating to an alleged lack of safety, efficacy, or regulatory compliance of the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ product candidates (“Safety Notices”) and (ii) there are no facts that would be reasonably likely to result in (x) a Safety Notice with respect to the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ product candidates, or (y) a material change in labeling of any of the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ product candidates or (z) a termination or suspension of marketing or testing of any of the Company’s or its subsidiaries’ product candidates.

 

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(ss) FINRA Matters. All of the information provided to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent by the Company, and, to the Company’s knowledge, its counsel, its officers and directors and the holders of any securities (debt or equity) or options to acquire any securities of the Company in connection with the offering of the Shares is true and correct as of the date it is provided to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent and is compliant in all material respects with FINRA’s rules in effect at the time it is provided to the Agent or to counsel for the Agent.

(tt) Related Party Transactions. There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any other person required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus which have not been described as required.

(uu) Brokers. Except as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(vv) Duties, Transfer Taxes, Etc. No stamp or other issuance or transfer taxes or duties and no capital gains, income, withholding or other taxes are payable by the Agent in the United States or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or therein in connection with the execution, delivery or performance of this Agreement by the Company or the sale and delivery by the Company of the Shares.

(ww) Other Underwriting Agreements. The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.

Any certificate signed by any officer or representative of the Company or any of its subsidiaries and delivered to the Agent or counsel for the Agent in connection with an issuance of Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Agent as to the matters covered thereby on the date of such certificate.

The Company acknowledges that the Agent and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(o) hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to the Agent, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.

Section 3. ISSUANCE AND SALE OF COMMON SHARES

(a) Sale of Securities. On the basis of the representations, warranties and agreements herein contained, but subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company may from time to time seek to sell Shares through the Agent, acting as sales agent, or directly to the Agent, acting as principal, as follows, with an aggregate Sales Price of up to the Maximum Program Amount, based on and in accordance with Issuance Notices as the Company may deliver, during the Agency Period.

(b) Mechanics of Issuances.

 

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(i) Issuance Notice. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, on any Trading Day during the Agency Period on which the conditions set forth in Section 5(a) and Section 5(b) shall have been satisfied, the Company may exercise its right to request an issuance of Shares by delivering to the Agent an Issuance Notice; provided, however, that (A) in no event may the Company deliver an Issuance Notice to the extent that (I) the sum of (x) the aggregate Sales Price of the requested Issuance Amount, plus (y) the aggregate Sales Price of all Shares issued under all previous Issuance Notices effected pursuant to this Agreement, would exceed the Maximum Program Amount; and (B) prior to delivery of any Issuance Notice, the period set forth for any previous Issuance Notice shall have expired or been terminated. An Issuance Notice shall be considered delivered on the Trading Day that it is received by e-mail to the persons set forth in Schedule A hereto and confirmed by the Company by telephone (including a voicemail message to the persons so identified), with the understanding that, with adequate prior written notice, the Agent may modify the list of such persons from time to time.

(ii) Agent Efforts. Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in this Agreement, upon the receipt of an Issuance Notice, the Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal sales and trading practices to place the Shares with respect to which the Agent has agreed to act as sales agent, subject to, and in accordance with the information specified in, the Issuance Notice, unless the sale of the Shares described therein has been suspended, cancelled or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement. For the avoidance of doubt, the parties to this Agreement may modify an Issuance Notice at any time provided they both agree in writing to any such modification.

(iii) Method of Offer and Sale. The Shares may be offered and sold (A) in negotiated transactions with the consent of the Company or (B) by any other method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including block transactions, sales made directly on the Principal Market or sales made into any other existing trading market of the Common Shares. Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to require either party to agree to the method of offer and sale specified in the preceding sentence, and (except as specified in clause (A) above) the method of placement of any Shares by the Agent shall be at the Agent’s discretion.

(iv) Confirmation to the Company. If acting as sales agent hereunder, the Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day next following the Trading Day on which it has placed Shares hereunder setting forth the number of shares sold on such Trading Day, the corresponding Sales Price and the Issuance Price payable to the Company in respect thereof.

(v) Settlement. Each issuance of Shares will be settled on the applicable Settlement Date for such issuance of Shares and, subject to the provisions of Section 5, on or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Shares being sold by crediting the Agent or its designee’s account at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit/Withdrawal At Custodian (DWAC) System, or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto and, upon receipt of such Shares, which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form, the Agent will deliver, by wire transfer of immediately available funds, the related Issuance Price in same day funds delivered to an account designated by the Company prior to the Settlement Date. The Company may sell Shares to the Agent as principal at a price agreed upon at each relevant time Shares are sold pursuant to this Agreement (each, a “Time of Sale”).

 

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(vi) Suspension or Termination of Sales. Consistent with standard market settlement practices, the Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party hereto in writing or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable email), suspend any sale of Shares, and the period set forth in an Issuance Notice shall immediately terminate; provided, however, that (A) such suspension and termination shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Shares placed or sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice; (B) if the Company suspends or terminates any sale of Shares after the Agent confirms such sale to the Company, the Company shall still be obligated to comply with Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares; and (C) if the Company defaults in its obligation to deliver Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that it will hold the Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage or expense (including, without limitation, penalties, interest and reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company. The parties hereto acknowledge and agree that, in performing its obligations under this Agreement, the Agent may borrow Common Shares from stock lenders in the event that the Company has not delivered Shares to settle sales as required by subsection (v) above, and may use the Shares to settle or close out such borrowings. The Company agrees that no such notice shall be effective against the Agent unless it is made to the persons identified in writing by the Agent pursuant to Section 3(b)(i).

(vii) No Guarantee of Placement, Etc. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (A) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in placing Shares; (B) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other Person if it does not sell Shares; and (C) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise specifically agreed by the Agent and the Company.

(viii) Material Non-Public Information. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company and the Agent agree that the Company shall not deliver any Issuance Notice to the Agent, and the Agent shall not be obligated to place any Shares, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information.

(c) Fees. As compensation for services rendered, the Company shall pay to the Agent, on the applicable Settlement Date, the Selling Commission for the applicable Issuance Amount (including with respect to any suspended or terminated sale pursuant to Section 3(b)(vi)) by the Agent deducting the Selling Commission from the applicable Issuance Amount.

(d) Expenses. The Company agrees to pay all costs, fees and expenses incurred in connection with the performance of its obligations hereunder and in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including without limitation (i) all expenses incident to the issuance and delivery of the Shares (including all printing and engraving costs); (ii) all fees and expenses of the registrar and transfer agent of the Shares; (iii) all necessary issue, transfer and other stamp taxes in connection with the issuance and sale of the Shares; (iv) all fees and expenses of the Company’s counsel, independent public or certified public accountants and other advisors; (v) all costs and expenses incurred in connection with the preparation, printing, filing, shipping and distribution of the Registration Statement (including financial statements, exhibits, schedules,

 

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consents and certificates of experts), the Prospectus, any Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company, and all amendments and supplements thereto, and this Agreement; (vi) all filing fees, attorneys’ fees and expenses incurred by the Company or the Agent in connection with qualifying or registering (or obtaining exemptions from the qualification or registration of) all or any part of the Shares for offer and sale under the state securities or blue sky laws or the provincial securities laws of Canada, and, if requested by the Agent, preparing and printing a “Blue Sky Survey” or memorandum and a “Canadian wrapper”, and any supplements thereto, advising the Agent of such qualifications, registrations, determinations and exemptions; (vii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agent’s counsel, including the reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for the Agent in connection with, FINRA review, if any, and approval of the Agent’s participation in the offering and distribution of the Shares; (viii) the filing fees incident to FINRA review, if any; (ix) the costs and expenses of the Company relating to investor presentations on any “road show” undertaken in connection with the marketing of the offering of the Shares, including, without limitation, expenses associated with the preparation or dissemination of any electronic road show, expenses associated with the production of road show slides and graphics, fees and expenses of any consultants engaged in connection with the road show presentations with the prior approval of the Company, travel and lodging expenses of the representatives, employees and officers of the Company and of the Agent and any such consultants, and the cost of any aircraft chartered in connection with the road show; and (x) the fees and expenses associated with listing the Shares on the Principal Market. The fees and disbursements of Agent’s counsel pursuant to subsections (vi) and (vii) above shall not exceed (A) $75,000 in connection with execution of this Agreement and (B) $15,000 in connection with each Triggering Event Date (as defined below) on which the Company is required to provide a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o).

Section 4. ADDITIONAL COVENANTS

The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent as follows, in addition to any other covenants and agreements made elsewhere in this Agreement:

(a) Exchange Act Compliance. During the Agency Period, the Company shall (i) file, on a timely basis, with the Commission all reports and documents required to be filed under Section 13, 14 or 15 of the Exchange Act in the manner and within the time periods required by the Exchange Act; and (ii) either (A) include in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and its annual reports on Form 10-K, a summary detailing, for the relevant reporting period, (1) the number of Shares sold through the Agent pursuant to this Agreement and (2) the net proceeds received by the Company from such sales or (B) prepare a prospectus supplement containing, or include in such other filing permitted by the Securities Act or Exchange Act (each an “Interim Prospectus Supplement”), such summary information and, at least once a quarter and subject to this Section 4, file such Interim Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (and within the time periods required by Rule 424(b) and Rule 430B under the Securities Act)).

(b) Securities Act Compliance. After the date of this Agreement, the Company shall promptly advise the Agent in writing (i) of the receipt of any comments of, or requests for additional or supplemental information from, the Commission; (ii) of the time and date of any filing of any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, any Free Writing Prospectus; (iii)

 

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of the time and date that any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement becomes effective; and (iv) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment thereto, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement or any amendment or supplement to the Prospectus or of any order preventing or suspending the use of any Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus, or of any proceedings to remove, suspend or terminate from listing or quotation the Common Shares from any securities exchange upon which they are listed for trading or included or designated for quotation, or of the threatening or initiation of any proceedings for any of such purposes. If the Commission shall enter any such stop order at any time, the Company will use its best efforts to obtain the lifting of such order as soon as practicable. Additionally, the Company agrees that it shall comply with the provisions of Rule 424(b) and Rule 433, as applicable, under the Securities Act and will use its reasonable efforts to confirm that any filings made by the Company under such Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 were received in a timely manner by the Commission.

(c) Amendments and Supplements to the Prospectus and Other Securities Act Matters. If any event shall occur or condition exist as a result of which it is necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus so that the Prospectus does not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, not misleading, or if in the opinion of the Agent or counsel for the Agent it is otherwise necessary to amend or supplement the Prospectus to comply with applicable law, including the Securities Act, the Company agrees (subject to Section 4(d) and Section 4(f)) to promptly prepare, file with the Commission and furnish at its own expense to the Agent, amendments or supplements to the Prospectus so that the statements in the Prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances when the Prospectus is delivered to a purchaser, be misleading or so that the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, will comply with applicable law including the Securities Act. Neither the Agent’s consent to, or delivery of, any such amendment or supplement shall constitute a waiver of any of the Company’s obligations under Section 4(d) and Section 4(f).

(d) Agents Review of Proposed Amendments and Supplements. Prior to amending or supplementing the Registration Statement (including any registration statement filed under Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act) or the Prospectus (excluding any amendment or supplement through incorporation of any report filed under the Exchange Act), the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each such proposed amendment or supplement, and the Company shall not file or use any such proposed amendment or supplement without the Agent’s prior consent, and to file with the Commission within the applicable period specified in Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act any prospectus required to be filed pursuant to such Rule.

(e) Use of Free Writing Prospectus. Neither the Company nor the Agent has prepared, used, referred to or distributed, or will prepare, use, refer to or distribute, without the other party’s prior written consent, any “written communication” that constitutes a “free writing prospectus” as such terms are defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act with respect to the offering contemplated by this Agreement (any such free writing prospectus being referred to herein as a “Free Writing Prospectus”).

 

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(f) Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of each proposed free writing prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto to be prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any proposed free writing prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto without the Agent’s consent. The Company shall furnish to the Agent, without charge, as many copies of any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, or used by the Company, as the Agent may reasonably request. If at any time when a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered in connection with sales of the Shares (but in any event if at any time through and including the date of this Agreement) there occurred or occurs an event or development as a result of which any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of, used by, or referred to by the Company conflicted or would conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or included or would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or would omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at that subsequent time, not misleading, the Company shall promptly amend or supplement such free writing prospectus to eliminate or correct such conflict or so that the statements in such free writing prospectus as so amended or supplemented will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances prevailing at such subsequent time, not misleading, as the case may be; provided, however, that prior to amending or supplementing any such free writing prospectus, the Company shall furnish to the Agent for review, a reasonable amount of time prior to the proposed time of filing or use thereof, a copy of such proposed amended or supplemented free writing prospectus and the Company shall not file, use or refer to any such amended or supplemented free writing prospectus without the Agent’s consent.

(g) Filing of Agent Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company shall not take any action that would result in the Agent or the Company being required to file with the Commission pursuant to Rule 433(d) under the Securities Act a free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of the Agent that the Agent otherwise would not have been required to file thereunder.

(h) Copies of Registration Statement and Prospectus. After the date of this Agreement through the last time that a prospectus is required by the Securities Act (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 173(d)) to be delivered in connection with sales of the Shares, the Company agrees to furnish the Agent with copies (which may be electronic copies) of the Registration Statement and each amendment thereto, and with copies of the Prospectus and each amendment or supplement thereto in the form in which it is filed with the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act or Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, both in such quantities as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time; and, if the delivery of a prospectus is required under the Securities Act or under the blue sky or securities laws of any jurisdiction at any time on or prior to the applicable Settlement Date for any period set forth in an Issuance Notice in connection with the offering or sale of the Shares and if at such time any event has occurred as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein,

 

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in the light of the circumstances under which they were made when such Prospectus is delivered, not misleading, or, if for any other reason it is necessary during such same period to amend or supplement the Prospectus or to file under the Exchange Act any document incorporated by reference in the Prospectus in order to comply with the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, to notify the Agent and to request that the Agent suspend offers to sell Shares (and, if so notified, the Agent shall cease such offers as soon as practicable); and if the Company decides to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented, to advise the Agent promptly by telephone (with confirmation in writing) and to prepare and cause to be filed promptly with the Commission an amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented that will correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that if during such same period the Agent is required to deliver a prospectus in respect of transactions in the Shares, the Company shall promptly prepare and file with the Commission such an amendment or supplement.

(i) Blue Sky Compliance. The Company shall cooperate with the Agent and counsel for the Agent to qualify or register the Shares for sale under (or obtain exemptions from the application of) the state securities or blue sky laws or Canadian provincial securities laws of those jurisdictions designated by the Agent, shall comply with such laws and shall continue such qualifications, registrations and exemptions in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Shares. The Company shall not be required to qualify as a foreign corporation or to take any action that would subject it to general service of process in any such jurisdiction where it is not presently qualified or where it would be subject to taxation as a foreign corporation. The Company will advise the Agent promptly of the suspension of the qualification or registration of (or any such exemption relating to) the Shares for offering, sale or trading in any jurisdiction or any initiation or threat of any proceeding for any such purpose, and in the event of the issuance of any order suspending such qualification, registration or exemption, the Company shall use its best efforts to obtain the withdrawal thereof as soon as practicable.

(j) Earnings Statement. As soon as practicable, the Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent an earnings statement (which need not be audited) covering a period of at least twelve months beginning with the first fiscal quarter of the Company occurring after the date of this Agreement which shall satisfy the provisions of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act and Rule 158 under the Securities Act.

(k) Listing; Reservation of Shares. (a) The Company will maintain the listing of the Shares on the Principal Market; and (b) the Company will reserve and keep available at all times, free of preemptive rights, Shares for the purpose of enabling the Company to satisfy its obligations under this Agreement.

(l) Transfer Agent. The Company shall engage and maintain, at its expense, a registrar and transfer agent for the Shares.

(m) Due Diligence. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will reasonably cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during normal business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request from time to time.

 

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(n) Representations and Warranties. The Company acknowledges that each delivery of an Issuance Notice and each delivery of Shares on a Settlement Date shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation to the Agent that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in or made pursuant to this Agreement are true and correct as of the date of such Issuance Notice or of such Settlement Date, as the case may be, as though made at and as of each such date, except as may be disclosed in the Prospectus (including any documents incorporated by reference therein and any supplements thereto); and (ii) an undertaking that the Company will advise the Agent if any of such representations and warranties will not be true and correct as of the Settlement Date for the Shares relating to such Issuance Notice, as though made at and as of each such date (except that such representations and warranties shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented relating to such Shares).

(o) Deliverables at Triggering Event Dates; Certificates. The Company agrees that on or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and, during the term of this Agreement after the date of the first Issuance Notice, upon:

(A) the filing of the Prospectus or the amendment or supplement of any Registration Statement or Prospectus (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Shares or a prospectus filed pursuant to Section 4(a)(ii)(B)), by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement, but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus;

(B) the filing with the Commission of an annual report on Form 10-K or a quarterly report on Form 10-Q (including any Form 10-K/A or Form 10-Q/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q), in each case, of the Company; or

(C) the filing with the Commission of a current report on Form 8-K of the Company containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) that is material to the offering of securities of the Company in the Agent’s reasonable discretion;

(any such event, a “Triggering Event Date”), the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (C) above only if the Agent reasonably determines that the information contained in such current report on Form 8-K of the Company is material) with a certificate as of the Triggering Event Date, in the form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented, (A) confirming that the representations and warranties of the Company contained in this Agreement are true and correct, (B) confirming that the Company has performed all of its obligations hereunder to be performed on or prior to the date of such certificate and as to the matters set forth in Section 5(a)(iii) hereof, and (C) containing any other certification that the Agent shall reasonably request. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 4(o) shall be waived for any Triggering Event Date occurring at a time when no Issuance Notice is pending or a suspension is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the

 

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Company delivers instructions for the sale of Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Triggering Event Date) and the next occurring Triggering Event Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Shares following a Triggering Event Date when a suspension was in effect and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 4(o), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Shares or the Agent sells any Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate in conformity with this Section 4(o) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Shares are issued.

(p) Legal Opinions. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on or prior to each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, a negative assurances letter and the written legal opinion of Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP, counsel to the Company, and Knobbe Martens Olson & Bear LLP, intellectual property counsel to the Company, each dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented. In lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings, in the discretion of the Agent, the Company may furnish a reliance letter from such counsel to the Agent, permitting the Agent to rely on a previously delivered opinion letter, modified as appropriate for any passage of time or Triggering Event Date (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of such Triggering Event Date).

(q) Comfort Letter. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on or prior to each Triggering Event Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 4(o) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause Ernst & Young LLP, the independent registered public accounting firm who has audited the financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, to furnish the Agent a comfort letter, dated the date of delivery, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agent and its counsel; provided, however, that any such comfort letter will only be required on the Triggering Event Date specified to the extent that it contains financial statements filed with the Commission under the Exchange Act and incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into a Prospectus. If requested by the Agent, the Company shall also cause a comfort letter to be furnished to the Agent within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event requiring the filing of a current report on Form 8-K containing material amended financial information of the Company, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Company shall be required to furnish no more than one comfort letter hereunder per each filing of an annual report on Form 10-K or a quarterly report on Form 10-Q.

(r) Secretarys Certificate. On or prior to the date of the first Issuance Notice and on or prior to each Triggering Event Date, the Company shall furnish the Agent a certificate executed by the Secretary of the Company, signing in such capacity, dated the date of delivery (i) certifying that attached thereto are true and complete copies of the resolutions duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company authorizing the execution and delivery of this Agreement and the

 

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consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby (including, without limitation, the issuance of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement), which authorization shall be in full force and effect on and as of the date of such certificate, (ii) certifying and attesting to the office, incumbency, due authority and specimen signatures of each Person who executed this Agreement for or on behalf of the Company, and (iii) containing any other certification that the Agent shall reasonably request.

(s) Agent’s Own Account; Clients’ Account. The Company consents to the Agent trading, in compliance with applicable law, in the Common Shares for the Agent’s own account and for the account of its clients at the same time as sales of the Shares occur pursuant to this Agreement.

(t) Investment Limitation. The Company shall not invest, or otherwise use the proceeds received by the Company from its sale of the Shares in such a manner as would require the Company or any of its subsidiaries to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act.

(u) Market Activities. The Company will not take, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that might be reasonably expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Shares or any other reference security, whether to facilitate the sale or resale of the Shares or otherwise, and the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with all applicable provisions of Regulation M. If the limitations of Rule 102 of Regulation M (“Rule 102”) do not apply with respect to the Shares or any other reference security pursuant to any exception set forth in Section (d) of Rule 102, then promptly upon notice from the Agent (or, if later, at the time stated in the notice), the Company will, and shall cause each of its affiliates to, comply with Rule 102 as though such exception were not available but the other provisions of Rule 102 (as interpreted by the Commission) did apply. The Company shall promptly notify the Agent if it no longer meets the requirements set forth in Section (d) of Rule 102.

(v) Notice of Other Sale. Without the written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Shares or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares (other than Shares hereunder), warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Shares, or effect a reverse stock split, recapitalization, share consolidation, reclassification or similar transaction affecting the outstanding Common Shares, during the period beginning on the third Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Issuance Notice is delivered to the Agent hereunder and ending on the third Trading Day immediately following the Settlement Date with respect to Shares sold pursuant to such Issuance Notice; and will not directly or indirectly enter into any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Shares (other than the Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Shares, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Shares prior to the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s (i) issuance or sale of Common Shares, options to purchase Common Shares or Common Shares issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any employee or director share option, incentive or benefit plan, share purchase or ownership plan, long-term incentive plan, dividend reinvestment plan, inducement award under Nasdaq rules or other compensation plan of the Company or its subsidiaries, as in effect on the date of this

 

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Agreement, (ii) issuance or sale of Common Shares issuable upon exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise or vesting of warrants, options or other equity awards outstanding at the date of this Agreement, and (iii) modification of any outstanding options, warrants of any rights to purchase or acquire Common Shares.

Section 5. CONDITIONS TO DELIVERY OF ISSUANCE NOTICES AND TO SETTLEMENT

(a) Conditions Precedent to the Right of the Company to Deliver an Issuance Notice and the Obligation of the Agent to Sell Shares. The right of the Company to deliver an Issuance Notice hereunder is subject to the satisfaction, on the date of delivery of such Issuance Notice, and the obligation of the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares during the applicable period set forth in the Issuance Notice is subject to the satisfaction, on each Trading Day during the applicable period set forth in the Issuance Notice, of each of the following conditions:

(i) Accuracy of the Company’s Representations and Warranties; Performance by the Company. The Company shall have delivered the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 4(o) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 4(o). The Company shall have performed, satisfied and complied with all covenants, agreements and conditions required by this Agreement to be performed, satisfied or complied with by the Company at or prior to such date, including, but not limited to, the covenants contained in Section 4(p), Section 4(q) and Section 4(r).

(ii) No Injunction. No statute, rule, regulation, executive order, decree, ruling or injunction shall have been enacted, entered, promulgated or endorsed by any court or governmental authority of competent jurisdiction or any self-regulatory organization having authority over the matters contemplated hereby that prohibits or directly and materially adversely affects any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, and no proceeding shall have been commenced that may have the effect of prohibiting or materially adversely affecting any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(iii) Material Adverse Effects. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus and the Time of Sale Information, (a) in the judgment of the Agent there shall not have occurred any Material Adverse Effect; and (b) there shall not have occurred any downgrading, nor shall any notice have been given of any intended or potential downgrading or of any review for a possible change that does not indicate the direction of the possible change, in the rating accorded any securities of the Company or any of its subsidiaries by any “nationally recognized statistical rating organization” as such term is defined for purposes of Section 3(a)(62) of the Exchange Act.

(iv) No Suspension of Trading in or Delisting of Common Shares; Other Events. The trading of the Common Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall not have been suspended by the Commission, the Principal Market or FINRA and the Common Shares (including without limitation the Shares) shall have been approved for listing or quotation on and shall not have been delisted from the Nasdaq Stock Market, the New York Stock Exchange or any of their constituent markets. There shall not have occurred (and be continuing in the case of occurrences under clauses (i) and (ii) below) any of the following: (i) trading or quotation in any of the

 

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Company’s securities shall have been suspended or limited by the Commission or by the Principal Market or trading in securities generally on the Principal Market shall have been suspended or limited, or minimum or maximum prices shall have been generally established on any of such stock exchanges by the Commission or the FINRA; (ii) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of federal or New York, authorities; or (iii) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States’ or international political, financial or economic conditions, as in the judgment of the Agent is material and adverse and makes it impracticable to market the Shares in the manner and on the terms described in the Prospectus or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities.

(b) Documents Required to be Delivered on each Issuance Notice Date. The Agent’s obligation to use its commercially reasonable efforts to place Shares hereunder shall additionally be conditioned upon the delivery to the Agent on or before the Issuance Notice Date of a certificate in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Agent, executed by the Chief Executive Officer, President or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, to the effect that all conditions to the delivery of such Issuance Notice shall have been satisfied as at the date of such certificate (which certificate shall not be required if the foregoing representations shall be set forth in the Issuance Notice).

(c) No Misstatement or Material Omission. Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Time of Sale Information, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(d) Agent Counsel Legal Opinion. Agent shall have received from Cooley LLP, counsel for Agent, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 4(p), with respect to such matters as Agent may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.

Section 6. INDEMNIFICATION AND CONTRIBUTION

(a) Indemnification of the Agent. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its officers and employees, and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Agent or such officer, employee or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or the laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), insofar as such loss, claim, damage, liability or expense (or actions in respect thereof as contemplated below) arises out of or is based upon (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make

 

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the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading and to reimburse the Agent and each such officer, employee and controlling person for any and all expenses (including the fees and disbursements of counsel chosen by the Agent) as such expenses are reasonably incurred by the Agent or such officer, employee or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action; provided, however, that the foregoing indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense to the extent, but only to the extent, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any such Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information described in subsection (b) below. The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 6(a) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Company may otherwise have.

(b) Indemnification of the Company, its Directors and Officers. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company, each of its directors, each of its officers who signed the Registration Statement and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense, as incurred, to which the Company or any such director, officer or controlling person may become subject, under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, or the laws or regulations of foreign jurisdictions where Shares have been offered or sold or at common law or otherwise (including in settlement of any litigation), arises out of or is based upon (i) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement, or any amendment thereto, including any information deemed to be a part thereof pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading; or (ii) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has used, referred to or filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433(d) of the Securities Act or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; but, for each of (i) and (ii) above, only to the extent arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agent expressly for use in the Registration Statement, any such Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by the Agent to the Company consists of the information set forth in the first sentence of the ninth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus, and to reimburse the Company and each such director, officer and controlling person for any and all expenses (including the fees and disbursements of one counsel chosen by the Company) as such expenses are reasonably incurred by the Company or such officer, director or controlling person in connection with investigating, defending, settling, compromising or paying any such loss, claim, damage, liability, expense or action. The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 6(b) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Agent or the Company may otherwise have.

 

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(c) Notifications and Other Indemnification Procedures. Promptly after receipt by an indemnified party under this Section 6 of notice of the commencement of any action, such indemnified party will, if a claim in respect thereof is to be made against an indemnifying party under this Section 6, notify the indemnifying party in writing of the commencement thereof, but the omission so to notify the indemnifying party will not relieve it from any liability which it may have to any indemnified party for contribution or otherwise than under the indemnity agreement contained in this Section 6 or to the extent it is not prejudiced as a proximate result of such failure. In case any such action is brought against any indemnified party and such indemnified party seeks or intends to seek indemnity from an indemnifying party, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in, and, to the extent that it shall elect, jointly with all other indemnifying parties similarly notified, by written notice delivered to the indemnified party promptly after receiving the aforesaid notice from such indemnified party, to assume the defense thereof with counsel reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party; provided, however, if the defendants in any such action include both the indemnified party and the indemnifying party and the indemnified party shall have reasonably concluded that a conflict may arise between the positions of the indemnifying party and the indemnified party in conducting the defense of any such action or that there may be legal defenses available to it and/or other indemnified parties which are different from or additional to those available to the indemnifying party, the indemnified party or parties shall have the right to select separate counsel to assume such legal defenses and to otherwise participate in the defense of such action on behalf of such indemnified party or parties. Upon receipt of notice from the indemnifying party to such indemnified party of such indemnifying party’s election so to assume the defense of such action and approval by the indemnified party of counsel, the indemnifying party will not be liable to such indemnified party under this Section 6 for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by such indemnified party in connection with the defense thereof unless (i) the indemnified party shall have employed separate counsel in accordance with the proviso to the preceding sentence (it being understood, however, that the indemnifying party shall not be liable for the fees and expenses of more than one separate counsel (together with local counsel), representing the indemnified parties who are parties to such action), which counsel (together with any local counsel) for the indemnified parties shall be selected by the indemnified party (in the case of counsel for the indemnified parties referred to in Section 6(a) and Section 6(b) above), (ii) the indemnifying party shall not have employed counsel satisfactory to the indemnified party to represent the indemnified party within a reasonable time after notice of commencement of the action or (iii) the indemnifying party has authorized in writing the employment of counsel for the indemnified party at the expense of the indemnifying party, in each of which cases the fees and expenses of counsel shall be at the expense of the indemnifying party and shall be paid as they are incurred.

(d) Settlements. The indemnifying party under this Section 6 shall not be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent, but if settled with such consent or if there be a final judgment for the plaintiff, the indemnifying party agrees to indemnify the indemnified party against any loss, claim, damage, liability or expense by reason of such settlement or judgment. Notwithstanding the foregoing sentence, if at any time an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for fees and expenses of

 

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counsel as contemplated by Section 6(c) hereof, the indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of any proceeding effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 30 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request; and (ii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed the indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of the indemnified party, effect any settlement, compromise or consent to the entry of judgment in any pending or threatened action, suit or proceeding in respect of which any indemnified party is or could have been a party and indemnity was or could have been sought hereunder by such indemnified party, unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of such indemnified party from all liability on claims that are the subject matter of such action, suit or proceeding.

(e) Contribution. If the indemnification provided for in this Section 6 is for any reason held to be unavailable to or otherwise insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party in respect of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein, then each indemnifying party shall contribute to the aggregate amount paid or payable by such indemnified party, as incurred, as a result of any losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses referred to therein (i) in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, from the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement; or (ii) if the allocation provided by clause (i) above is not permitted by applicable law, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in clause (i) above but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such losses, claims, damages, liabilities or expenses, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. The relative benefits received by the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, in connection with the offering of the Shares pursuant to this Agreement shall be deemed to be in the same respective proportions as the total gross proceeds from the offering of the Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total commissions received by the Agent. The relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any such untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company, on the one hand, or the Agent, on the other hand, and the parties’ relative intent, knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.

The amount paid or payable by a party as a result of the losses, claims, damages, liabilities and expenses referred to above shall be deemed to include, subject to the limitations set forth in Section 6(c), any legal or other fees or expenses reasonably incurred by such party in connection with investigating or defending any action or claim. The provisions set forth in Section 6(c) with respect to notice of commencement of any action shall apply if a claim for contribution is to be made under this Section 6(e); provided, however, that no additional notice shall be required with respect to any action for which notice has been given under Section 6(c) for purposes of indemnification.

The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 6(e) were determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to in this Section 6(e).

 

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Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the Selling Commission received by the Agent in connection with the offering contemplated hereby. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 6(e), each officer and employee of the Agent and each person, if any, who controls the Agent within the meaning of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Agent, and each director of the Company, each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act shall have the same rights to contribution as the Company.

Section 7. TERMINATION & SURVIVAL

(a) Term. Subject to the provisions of this Section 7, the term of this Agreement shall continue from the date of this Agreement until the end of the Agency Period, unless earlier terminated by the parties to this Agreement pursuant to this Section 7.

(b) Termination; Survival Following Termination.

(i) Either party may terminate this Agreement prior to the end of the Agency Period, by giving written notice as required by this Agreement, upon ten (10) Trading Days’ notice to the other party; provided that, (A) if the Company terminates this Agreement after the Agent confirms to the Company any sale of Shares, the Company shall remain obligated to comply with Section 3(b)(v) with respect to such Shares and (B) Section 2, Section 3(d), Section 6, Section 7 and Section 8 shall survive termination of this Agreement. If termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Shares, such sale shall nevertheless settle in accordance with the terms of this Agreement.

(ii) In addition to the survival provision of Section 7(b)(i), the respective indemnities, agreements, representations, warranties and other statements of the Company, of its officers and of the Agent set forth in or made pursuant to this Agreement will remain in full force and effect, regardless of any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent or the Company or any of its or their partners, officers or directors or any controlling person, as the case may be, and, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding, will survive delivery of and payment for the Shares sold hereunder and any termination of this Agreement.

Section 8. MISCELLANEOUS

(a) Press Releases and Disclosure. The Company may issue a press release describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby as soon as practicable following the date of this Agreement, and may file with the Commission a Current Report on Form 8 K, with this Agreement attached as an exhibit thereto, describing the material terms of the transactions contemplated hereby, and the Company shall consult with the Agent prior to making such disclosures, and the parties hereto shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosures that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto.

 

34


No party hereto shall issue thereafter any press release or like public statement (including, without limitation, any disclosure required in reports filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act) related to this Agreement or any of the transactions contemplated hereby without the prior written approval of the other party hereto, except as may be necessary or appropriate in the reasonable opinion of the party seeking to make disclosure to comply with the requirements of applicable law or stock exchange rules. If any such press release or like public statement is so required, the party making such disclosure shall consult with the other party prior to making such disclosure, and the parties shall use all commercially reasonable efforts, acting in good faith, to agree upon a text for such disclosure that is reasonably satisfactory to all parties hereto.

(b) No Advisory or Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including the determination of any fees, are arm’s-length commercial transactions between the Company and the Agent, (ii) when acting as a principal under this Agreement, the Agent is and has been acting solely as a principal is not the agent or fiduciary of the Company, or its stockholders, creditors, employees or any other party, (iii) the Agent has not assumed nor will assume an advisory or fiduciary responsibility in favor of the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby or the process leading thereto (irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is currently advising the Company on other matters) and the Agent does not have any obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement, (iv) the Agent and its affiliates may be engaged in a broad range of transactions that involve interests that differ from those of the Company, and (v) the Agent has not provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated hereby and the Company has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it deemed appropriate.

(c) Research Analyst Independence. The Company acknowledges that the Agent’s research analysts and research departments are required to and should be independent from their respective investment banking divisions and are subject to certain regulations and internal policies, and as such the Agent’s research analysts may hold views and make statements or investment recommendations and/or publish research reports with respect to the Company or the offering that differ from the views of their respective investment banking divisions. The Company understands that the Agent is a full service securities firm and as such from time to time, subject to applicable securities laws, may effect transactions for its own account or the account of its customers and hold long or short positions in debt or equity securities of the companies that may be the subject of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(d) Notices. All communications hereunder shall be in writing and shall be mailed, hand delivered, telecopied or delivered via electronic mail and confirmed to the parties hereto as follows:

If to the Agent:

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Attention: General Counsel

 

35


Facsimile:

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

Cooley LLP

55 Hudson Yards

New York, NY 10001

Attention: Daniel I. Goldberg, Esq.

Facsimile:

If to the Company:

Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

15440 Laguna Canyon Road

Irvine, California 92618,

Attention: Bobak Azamian

Email:

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

Gunderson Dettmer Stough Villeneuve Franklin & Hachigian, LLP

3570 Carmel Mountain Road, Suite 200,

San Diego, California 92130

Attention: Ilan Lovinsky

Email:

Any party hereto may change the address for receipt of communications by giving written notice to the others in accordance with this Section 8(d).

(e) Successors. This Agreement will inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the parties hereto, and to the benefit of the employees, officers and directors and controlling persons referred to in Section 6, and in each case their respective successors, and no other person will have any right or obligation hereunder. The term “successors” shall not include any purchaser of the Shares as such from the Agent merely by reason of such purchase.

(f) Partial Unenforceability. The invalidity or unenforceability of any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other Article, Section, paragraph or provision hereof. If any Article, Section, paragraph or provision of this Agreement is for any reason determined to be invalid or unenforceable, there shall be deemed to be made such minor changes (and only such minor changes) as are necessary to make it valid and enforceable.

(g) Governing Law Provisions. This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York applicable to agreements made and to be performed in such state. Any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon this Agreement or the transactions contemplated hereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the Borough of Manhattan in the City of

 

36


New York (collectively, the “Specified Courts”), and each party irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction (except for proceedings instituted in regard to the enforcement of a judgment of any such court, as to which such jurisdiction is non-exclusive) of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. Service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail to such party’s address set forth above shall be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The parties irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the Specified Courts and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim in any such court that any such suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court has been brought in an inconvenient forum.

(h) General Provisions. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement of the parties to this Agreement and supersedes all prior written or oral and all contemporaneous oral agreements, understandings and negotiations with respect to the subject matter hereof. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each one of which shall be an original, with the same effect as if the signatures thereto and hereto were upon the same instrument, and may be delivered by facsimile transmission or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com). This Agreement may not be amended or modified unless in writing by all of the parties hereto, and no condition herein (express or implied) may be waived unless waived in writing by each party whom the condition is meant to benefit. The Article and Section headings herein are for the convenience of the parties only and shall not affect the construction or interpretation of this Agreement.

[Signature Page Immediately Follows]

 

37


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, kindly sign and return to the Company the enclosed copies hereof, whereupon this instrument, along with all counterparts hereof, shall become a binding agreement in accordance with its terms

 

Very truly yours,
TARSUS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:   /s/ Leo Greenstein
  Name: Leo Greenstein
  Title: Chief Financial Officer

The foregoing Agreement is hereby confirmed and accepted by the Agent in New York, New York as of the date first above written.

 

JEFFERIES LLC
By:   /s/ Donald Lynaugh
  Name:   Donald Lynaugh
  Title:   Managing Director


EXHIBIT A

ISSUANCE NOTICE

[Date]

Jefferies LLC

520 Madison Avenue

New York, New York 10022

Attn: [__________]

Reference is made to the Open Market Sale AgreementSM between Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (the “Company”) and Jefferies LLC (the “Agent”) dated as of November [1], 2021. The Company confirms that all conditions to the delivery of this Issuance Notice are satisfied as of the date hereof.

Date of Delivery of Issuance Notice (determined pursuant to Section 3(b)(i)):

 

Issuance Amount (equal to the total Sales Price for such Shares):

 

   $                                                                                          
Number of days in selling period:     
First date of selling period:     
Last date of selling period:     
Settlement Date(s) if other than standard T+2 settlement:     
  

Floor Price Limitation (in no event less than $1.00 without the prior written consent of the Agent, which consent may be withheld in the Agent’s sole discretion): $ ____ per share

 

Comments:    
   
By:    
  Name:
 

Title:


Schedule A

Notice Parties

The Company

Bobak Azamian

Leo Greenstein

Bryan Wahl

The Agent

Donald Lynaugh

Michael Magarro

EX-4.5

Exhibit 4.5

 

 

INDENTURE

between

TARSUS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

as Issuer

and

[TRUSTEE]

as Trustee

 

 

Dated as of                , 20

 

 

Providing for the Issuance of Debt Securities in Series

 

 

 


TARSUS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

Reconciliation and tie between the Trust Indenture Act of 1939

and the Indenture

 

Trust Indenture Act Section

  

Indenture Section

Sec. 310(a)(1)

   607

(a)(2)

   607

(b)

   608

Sec. 312(c)

   701

Sec. 314(a)

   703

(c)(1)

   102

(c)(2)

   102

(e)

   102

Sec. 315(b)

   601

Sec. 316(a) (last sentence)

   101 (“Outstanding”)

(a)(1)(A)

   502, 512

(a)(1)(B)

   513

(b)

   508

(c)

   104(c)

Sec. 317(a)(1)

   503

(a)(2)

   504

Sec. 318(a)

   111

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

         Page  

ARTICLE 1 Definitions and Other Provisions of General Application

     1  

SECTION 101.

  Definitions      1  

SECTION 102.

  Compliance Certificates and Opinions      11  

SECTION 103.

  Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee      12  

SECTION 104.

  Acts of Holders      12  

SECTION 105.

  Notices, etc. to Trustee or the Company      14  

SECTION 106.

  Notice to Holders; Waiver      14  

SECTION 107.

  Effect of Headings and Table of Contents      15  

SECTION 108.

  Successors and Assigns      15  

SECTION 109.

  Separability Clause      15  

SECTION 110.

  Benefits of Indenture      15  

SECTION 111.

  Governing Law      16  

SECTION 112.

  Legal Holidays      16  

SECTION 113.

  No Recourse      16  

SECTION 114.

  Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act      16  

SECTION 115.

  Rules of Construction      17  

SECTION 116.

  Force Majeure      18  

SECTION 117.

  U.S.A. Patriot Act      18  

ARTICLE 2 Security Forms

     18  

SECTION 201.

  Forms Generally      18  

SECTION 202.

  Form of Trustee’s Certificate of Authentication      19  

SECTION 203.

  Securities Issuable in Global Form      19  

 

i


ARTICLE 3 The Securities

     20  

SECTION 301.

  Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series      20  

SECTION 302.

  Denominations      24  

SECTION 303.

  Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating      24  

SECTION 304.

  Temporary Securities      26  

SECTION 305.

  Registration, Registration of Transfer and Exchange      29  

SECTION 306.

  Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities      32  

SECTION 307.

  Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved; Optional Interest Reset      33  

SECTION 308.

  Optional Extension of Maturity      36  

SECTION 309.

  Persons Deemed Owners      37  

SECTION 310.

  Cancellation      38  

SECTION 311.

  Computation of Interest      38  

SECTION 312.

  Currency and Manner of Payments in Respect of Securities      38  

SECTION 313.

  Appointment and Resignation of Successor Exchange Rate Agent      41  

ARTICLE 4 Satisfaction and Discharge

     42  

SECTION 401.

  Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture      42  

SECTION 402.

  Application of Trust Money      43  

ARTICLE 5 Remedies

     43  

SECTION 501.

  Events of Default      43  

SECTION 502.

  [RESERVED]      45  

ARTICLE 6 The Trustee

     45  

SECTION 601.

  Notice of Defaults      45  

SECTION 602.

  Certain Duties, Responsibilities and Rights of Trustee      45  

SECTION 603.

  Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities      47  

SECTION 604.

  May Hold Securities      48  

SECTION 605.

  Money Held in Trust      48  

 

ii


SECTION 606.

  Compensation and Reimbursement      48  

SECTION 607.

  Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility; Conflicting Interests; Disqualification      49  

SECTION 608.

  Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor      49  

SECTION 609.

  Acceptance of Appointment by Successor      51  

SECTION 610.

  Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business      52  

SECTION 611.

  Appointment of Authenticating Agent      52  

ARTICLE 7 Holders’ Lists and Reports by Trustee and Company

     54  

SECTION 701.

  Disclosure of Names and Addresses of Holders      54  

SECTION 702.

  Reports by Trustee      54  

SECTION 703.

  Reports by Company      54  

ARTICLE 8 Consolidation, Merger, Conveyance, Transfer or Lease

     55  

ARTICLE 9 Supplemental Indentures

     55  

SECTION 901.

  Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders      55  

SECTION 902.

  Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders      57  

SECTION 903.

  Execution of Supplemental Indentures      58  

SECTION 904.

  Effect of Supplemental Indentures      58  

SECTION 905.

  Conformity with Trust Indenture Act      58  

SECTION 906.

  Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures      58  

SECTION 907.

  Notice of Supplemental Indentures      58  

ARTICLE 10 Covenants

     59  

ARTICLE 11 Redemption of Securities

     59  

SECTION 1101.

  Applicability of Article      59  

SECTION 1102.

  Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee      59  

SECTION 1103.

  Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed      59  

SECTION 1104.

  Notice of Redemption      60  

 

iii


SECTION 1105.

  Deposit of Redemption Price      61  

SECTION 1106.

  Securities Payable on Redemption Date      61  

SECTION 1107.

  Securities Redeemed in Part      62  

SECTION 1108.

  Optional Redemption Due to Changes in Tax Treatment      62  

ARTICLE 12 Sinking Funds

     63  

SECTION 1201.

  Applicability of Article      63  

SECTION 1202.

  Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities      63  

SECTION 1203.

  Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund      63  

ARTICLE 13 Repayment at Option of Holders

     64  

SECTION 1301.

  Applicability of Article      64  

SECTION 1302.

  Repayment of Securities      65  

SECTION 1303.

  Exercise of Option      65  

SECTION 1304.

  When Securities Presented for Repayment Become Due and Payable      66  

SECTION 1305.

  Securities Repaid in Part      67  

ARTICLE 14 Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

     67  

SECTION 1401.

  Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance      67  

SECTION 1402.

  Defeasance and Discharge      67  

SECTION 1403.

  Covenant Defeasance      68  

SECTION 1404.

  Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance      68  

SECTION 1405.

  Deposited Money and Government Obligations to Be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions      70  

SECTION 1406.

  Reinstatement      71  

ARTICLE 15 Meetings of Holders of Securities

     71  

SECTION 1501.

  Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called      71  

SECTION 1502.

  Call, Notice and Place of Meetings      71  

SECTION 1503.

  Persons Entitled to Vote at Meetings      71  

 

iv


SECTION 1504.

  Quorum; Action      72  

SECTION 1505.

  Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings      73  

SECTION 1506.

  Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings      73  

 

 

v


INDENTURE, dated as of                 , 20    , between TARSUS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC., a Delaware corporation, as Issuer (the “Company”), having its principal office at 15440 Laguna Canyon Road, Suite 160, Irvine, California 92618, and [TRUSTEE], a New York banking corporation, as Trustee (the “Trustee”).

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

WHEREAS, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its unsecured senior or subordinated debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness (the “Securities”), which may be convertible into or exchangeable for any securities of any person (including the Company), to be issued in one or more series as in this Indenture provided; and

WHEREAS, this Indenture is subject to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, that are required to be part of this Indenture, and shall be governed by such provisions; provided that if any provision of this Indenture modifies any TIA (as defined herein) provision that may be so modified, such TIA provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified; provided further that if any provision of this Indenture excludes any TIA provision that may be so excluded, such TIA provision shall be excluded from this Indenture; and

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders (as defined herein) thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities or of series thereof and any coupons (as defined herein), as follows:

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS AND OTHER PROVISIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION

SECTION 101. Definitions. “Act”, when used with respect to any Holder, has the meaning specified in Section 104.

“Additional Amounts” has the meaning specified in Article 10.

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For purposes of this definition, “control,” as used with respect to any Person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise. For purposes of this definition, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with” shall have correlative meanings.


“Authenticating Agent” means any Person appointed by the Trustee to act on behalf of the Trustee pursuant to Section 611 to authenticate Securities.

“Authorized Newspaper” means a newspaper, in the English language or in an official language of the country of publication, customarily published on each Business Day, whether or not published on Saturdays, Sundays or holidays, and of general circulation in each place in connection with which the term is used or in the financial community of each such place. Where successive publications are required to be made in Authorized Newspapers, the successive publications may be made in the same or in different newspapers in the same city meeting the foregoing requirements and in each case on any Business Day.

“Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code or any similar U.S. federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

“Bearer Security” means any Security except a Registered Security.

“Board of Directors” means (i) with respect to a corporation, the board of directors of the corporation; (ii) with respect to a partnership, the board of directors of a corporate general partner of the partnership; (iii) with respect to a limited liability company, the managing members thereof; and (iv) with respect to any other Person, the board of directors or committee of such Person serving a similar function.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company as the case may be, to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification, and delivered to the Trustee.

“Business Day” means, when used with respect to any Place of Payment or any other particular location referred to in this Indenture or in the Securities, unless otherwise specified with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301, each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday which (i) is not a day on which banking institutions in that Place of Payment or other location are authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close and (ii) if a payment is to be made in (or a rate is to be ascertained for) Euros, is also a day in which TARGET2 is open for settlement of payments in Euros.

“Clearstream” means Clearstream Banking, société anonyme, or its successor.

“Code” means the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations thereunder.

“Commission” or “SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this Indenture such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

“Commodity Agreement” means any forward contract, commodity swap, commodity option or other financial agreement or arrangement relating to, or the value of which is dependent upon, fluctuations in commodity prices.

 

2


“Common Depositary” has the meaning specified in Section 304.

“Company” means the Person named as the “Company” in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor Person shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Company” shall mean such successor Person.

“Company Request” or “Company Order” means a written request or order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer of the Company and delivered to the Trustee.

“Conversion Date” has the meaning specified in Section 312(d).

“Conversion Event” means the cessation of use of a Foreign Currency both by the government of one or more countries or by any recognized union, association or confederation of governments that issued such Foreign Currency and by a central bank or other public institution of or within the international banking community for the settlement of transactions in such Foreign Currency.

“Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee” means the principal corporate trust office of the Trustee, at which at any particular time its corporate trust business shall be administered, which office on the date of execution of this Indenture is located at [Trustee], [Address], Attention: [Department], except that with respect to presentation of Securities for payment or for registration of transfer or exchange, such term shall mean the office or agency of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate agency business shall be conducted.

“corporation” includes corporations, associations, companies and business or statutory trusts.

“coupon” means any interest coupon appertaining to a Bearer Security.

“Currency” means any currency, composite currency or currency unit and Foreign Currency issued by the government of one or more countries or by any recognized union, confederation or association of such governments.

“Currency Agreement” means any foreign exchange contract, currency swap agreement or other similar agreement with respect to currency values.

“Default” means any event that is, or with the passage of time or the giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

“Defaulted Interest” has the meaning specified in Section 307.

“Depositary” means, with respect to Registered Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Registered Securities will be issued in permanent global form, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulations, which in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to Section 301.

“Dollar” or “$” means a dollar or other equivalent unit in such coin or currency of the United States of America as at the time shall be legal tender for the payment of public and private debts therein.

 

3


“Dollar Equivalent of the Currency Unit” has the meaning specified in Section 312(g).

“Dollar Equivalent of the Foreign Currency” has the meaning specified in Section 312(f).

“EDGAR” means the SEC’s Electronic Data Gathering and Retrieval System.

“Election Date” has the meaning specified in Section 312(h).

“Euroclear” means Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V. as operator of Euroclear System, and any successor thereto.

“Event of Default” has the meaning specified in Section 501.

“Exchange Act” means the U.S. Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

“Exchange Date” has the meaning specified in Section 304.

“Exchange Rate Agent” means, with respect to Securities of or within any series, unless otherwise specified with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301, a New York Clearing House bank, designated pursuant to Section 301 or Section 313.

“Exchange Rate Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate setting forth (i) the applicable Market Exchange Rate and (ii) the Dollar or Foreign Currency amounts of principal (and premium, if any) and interest, if any (on an aggregate basis and on the basis of a Security having the lowest denomination principal amount determined in accordance with Section 302 in the relevant Currency), payable with respect to a Security of any series on the basis of such Market Exchange Rate, signed by any Officer of the Company.

“Extension Notice” has the meaning specified in Section 308.

“Extension Period” has the meaning specified in Section 308.

“Federal Bankruptcy Code” means the U.S. Bankruptcy Act of Title 11 of the United States Code, as amended from time to time.

“Foreign Currency” means any Currency other than Currency of the United States.

“GAAP” means U.S. generally accepted accounting principles set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other successor entities as have been sanctioned and approved by the Securities and Exchange Commission, approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, that are applicable at the date of any relevant calculation or determination.

 

4


“Government Obligations” means, unless otherwise specified with respect to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301, securities which are (i) direct obligations of the government which issued the Currency in which the Securities of a particular series are payable or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the government which issued the Currency in which the Securities of such series are payable, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed by such government, which, in either case, are full faith and credit obligations of such government payable in such Currency and are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Government Obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

“guarantee” means a guarantee (other than by endorsement of negotiable instruments for collection in the ordinary course of business), direct or indirect, in any manner (including, without limitation, letters of credit and reimbursement agreements in respect thereof), of all or any part of any Indebtedness or other obligations.

“Hedging Obligations” of any Person means the obligations of such Person pursuant to any Interest Rate Agreement, Currency Agreement, Commodity Agreement or derivative contract entered into to hedge interest rate risk, currency exchange risk, and commodity price risk.

“Holder” means, in the case of a Registered Security, the Person in whose name a Security is registered in the Security Register and, in the case of a Bearer Security, the bearer thereof and, when used with respect to any coupon, shall mean the bearer thereof.

“Indebtedness” means any and all obligations of a Person for money borrowed which, in accordance with GAAP, would be reflected on the balance sheet of such Person as a liability on the date as of which Indebtedness is to be determined.

“Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof, and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 301; provided, however, that, if at any time more than one Person is acting as Trustee under this instrument, “Indenture” shall mean, with respect to any one or more series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee, this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities for which such Person is Trustee established as contemplated by Section 301, exclusive, however, of any provisions or terms which relate solely to other series of Securities for which such Person is not Trustee, regardless of when such terms or provisions were adopted, and exclusive of any provisions or terms adopted by means of one or more indentures supplemental hereto executed and delivered after such Person had become such Trustee but to which such Person, as such Trustee, was not a party.

 

5


“Indexed Security” means a Security the terms of which provide that the principal amount thereof payable at the Stated Maturity may be more or less than the principal amount thereof at original issuance.

“interest” means, when used with respect to an Original Issue Discount Security the rate prescribed in such Original Issue Discount Security.

“Interest Payment Date” means, when used with respect to any Security, the Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

“Interest Rate Agreement” means any interest rate swap agreement, interest rate cap agreement or other financial agreement or arrangement with respect to exposure to interest rates.

“Lien” or “lien” means, with respect to any asset, any mortgage, lien, pledge, charge, security interest or encumbrance of any kind in respect of such asset, whether or not filed, recorded or otherwise perfected under applicable law, including any conditional sale or other title retention agreement, any lease in the nature thereof, any option or other agreement to sell or give a security interest in and any filing of or agreement to give any financing statement under the Uniform Commercial Code (or equivalent statutes) of any jurisdiction.

“Market Exchange Rate” means, unless otherwise specified with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301, (i) for any conversion involving a currency unit on the one hand and Dollars or any Foreign Currency on the other, the exchange rate between the relevant currency unit and Dollars or such Foreign Currency calculated by the method specified pursuant to Section 301 for the Securities of the relevant series, (ii) for any conversion of Dollars into any Foreign Currency, the noon (New York City time) buying rate for such Foreign Currency for cable transfers quoted in New York City as certified for customs purposes by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and (iii) for any conversion of one Foreign Currency into Dollars or another Foreign Currency, the spot rate at noon local time in the relevant market at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Dollars or Foreign Currency into which conversion is being made could be purchased with the Foreign Currency from which conversion is being made from major banks located in either New York City, London or any other principal market for Dollars or such purchased Foreign Currency, in each case determined by the Exchange Rate Agent. Unless otherwise specified with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301, in the event of the unavailability of any of the exchange rates provided for in the foregoing clauses (i), (ii) and (iii), the Exchange Rate Agent shall use, in its sole discretion and without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York as of the most recent available date, or quotations from one or more major banks in New York City, London or another principal market for the Currency in question, or such other quotations as the Exchange Rate Agent shall deem appropriate. Unless otherwise specified by the Exchange Rate Agent, if there is more than one market for dealing in any Currency by reason of foreign exchange regulations or otherwise, the market to be used in respect of such Currency shall be that upon which a non-resident issuer of securities designated in such Currency would purchase such Currency in order to make payments in respect of such securities.

“Maturity” means, when used with respect to any Security, the date on which the principal of such Security or any installment of principal becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by acceleration, notice of redemption, notice of option to elect repayment, notice of exchange or conversion, or otherwise.

 

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“Net Tangible Assets” means the total assets of the Company as reflected in the most recent balance sheet preceding the date of determination prepared in accordance with GAAP consistently applied, less after deducting therefrom (a) all current liabilities excluding current maturities of long-term debt and Capital Lease Obligations and (b) goodwill, tradenames, trademarks, patents, unamortized debt discount and expense and other similar intangible assets prepared in accordance with GAAP, but excluding any investments in permits or licenses issued, granted or approved by the Federal Communications Commission.

“Officer” means the President, any Vice President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or the Secretary.

“Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed on behalf of the Company by one Officer of the Company who must be the President, the Treasurer, or a Vice President of the Company, that meets the requirements of Section 102.

“Operating Property” means each plant or facility of the Company or a Restricted Subsidiary located within the United States, except any such plant or facility which the Board of Directors of the Company by resolution reasonably determines not to be of material importance to the total business conducted by the Company and its Restricted Subsidiaries.

“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of counsel, who may be counsel for the Company, including an employee of the Company, and who shall be acceptable to the Trustee.

“Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security which provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon an acceleration of the Maturity thereof.

“Outstanding” means, when used with respect to Securities, as of the date of determination, all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, except:

(i) Securities theretofore cancelled by the Trustee or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation;

(ii) Securities, or portions thereof, for whose payment or redemption or repayment at the option of the Holder money in the necessary amount has been theretofore deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent (other than the Company) in trust or set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent) for the Holders of such Securities and any coupons appertaining thereto; provided that, if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made;

(iii) Securities, except to the extent provided in Sections 1402 and 1403, with respect to which the Company has effected defeasance and/or covenant defeasance as provided in Article Fourteen;

 

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(iv) Securities which have been paid pursuant to Section 306 or in exchange for or in lieu of which other Securities have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to this Indenture, other than any such Securities in respect of which there shall have been presented to the Trustee proof satisfactory to it that such Securities are held by a bona fide purchaser in whose hands such Securities are valid obligations of the Company; and

(v) Securities that have been converted or exchanged for other securities pursuant to Section 301;

provided, however, that in determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder or are present at a meeting of Holders for quorum purposes, and for the purpose of making the calculations required by TIA Section 313, (i) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security that may be counted in making such determination or calculation and that shall be deemed to be Outstanding for such purpose shall be equal to the amount of principal thereof that would be (or shall have been determined to be) due and payable, at the time of such determination, upon an acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502, (ii) the principal amount of any Security denominated in a Foreign Currency that may be counted in making such determination or calculation and that shall be deemed Outstanding for such purpose shall be equal to the Dollar equivalent, determined as of the date such Security is originally issued by the Company as set forth in an Exchange Rate Officer’s Certificate delivered to the Trustee, of the principal amount (or, in the case of an Original Issue Discount Security, the Dollar equivalent as of such date of original issuance of the amount determined as provided in clause (i) above) of such Security, (iii) the principal amount of any Indexed Security that may be counted in making such determination or calculation and that shall be deemed Outstanding for such purpose shall be equal to the principal amount of such Indexed Security at original issuance, unless otherwise provided with respect to such Security pursuant to Section 301, and (iv) Securities owned by the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in making such determination or calculation or in conclusively relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver or upon any such determination as to the presence of a quorum, only Securities which a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows to be so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or such other obligor.

“Paying Agent” means any Person (including the Company acting as Paying Agent) authorized by the Company to pay the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on any Securities on behalf of the Company.

 

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“Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

“Place of Payment” means, when used with respect to the Securities of or within any series, the place or places (which, in the case of Bearer Securities, shall be outside the United States) where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on such Securities are payable as specified as contemplated by Sections 301.

“Redemption Date”, when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, in whole or in part, means the date fixed for such redemption pursuant to this Indenture.

“Redemption Price” means, when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, the price at which it is to be redeemed pursuant to this Indenture.

“Registered Security” means any Security registered in the Security Register.

“Regular Record Date” for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date on the Registered Securities of or within any series means the date specified for that purpose as contemplated by Section 301.

“Repayment Date” means, when used with respect to any Security to be repaid at the option of the Holder, the date fixed for such repayment pursuant to this Indenture.

“Repayment Price” means, when used with respect to any Security to be repaid at the option of the Holder, the price at which it is to be repaid pursuant to this Indenture.

“Responsible Officer” means, when used with respect to the Trustee, any officer of the Trustee within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) who has direct responsibility for administration of this Indenture and, for purposes of Section 601 (or subparagraph (3)(b) of the first paragraph of Section 602 to the extent such expanded definition is used), also includes any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of such officer’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

“Restricted Subsidiary” means any Subsidiary:

(i) substantially all of the property of which is located, or substantially all of the business of which is carried on, within the United States, and

(ii) which owns or is the lessee of any Operating Property.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, a Subsidiary designated as an “unrestricted subsidiary” in accordance with the procedures agreed to by the Company and the Trustee in a supplemental indenture shall not be a Restricted Subsidiary.

“Security” or “Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Security or Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture; provided, however, that if at any time there is more than one Person acting as Trustee under this Indenture, “Securities” with respect to the Indenture as to which such Person is Trustee shall have the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and shall more particularly mean Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture, exclusive, however, of Securities of any series as to which such Person is not Trustee.

 

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“Security Register” and “Security Registrar” have the respective meanings specified in Section 305.

“Special Record Date” for the payment of any Defaulted Interest on the Registered Securities of or within any series means a date fixed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 307.

“Stated Maturity”, when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security or a coupon representing such installment of interest as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable, as such date may be extended pursuant to the provisions of Section 308.

“Subsidiary” means (1) any corporation of which at least a majority of the outstanding stock having by the terms thereof ordinary voting power for the election of directors of such corporation (irrespective of whether or not at the time stock of any other class or classes of such corporation shall have or might have voting power by reason of the happening of any contingency) is at the time directly or indirectly owned by the Company or one or more other Subsidiaries, or by the Company and one or more other Subsidiaries, and (2) any other Person in which the Company or one or more other Subsidiaries, directly or indirectly, at the date of determination, (x) own at least a majority of the outstanding ownership interests or (y) have the power to elect or direct the election of, or to appoint or approve the appointment of, at least the majority of the directors, trustees or managing members of, or other persons holding similar positions with, such Person.

“TARGET2” means the Trans-European Automated Real-Time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System, or any successor to such system.

“Trade Payables” means accounts payable or any other Indebtedness or monetary obligations to trade creditors created or assumed in the ordinary course of business in connection with the obtaining of materials or services.

“Trust Indenture Act” or “TIA” means the U.S. Trust Indenture Act of 1939 as in force at the date as of which this Indenture was executed, except as provided in Section 905.

“Trustee” means the Person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder; provided, however, that if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any series shall mean only the Trustee with respect to Securities of that series.

“United States” means, unless otherwise specified with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301, the United States of America (including the states and the District of Columbia), its territories, its possessions and other areas subject to its jurisdiction.

 

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“United States person” means, unless otherwise specified with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301, an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States, a corporation, partnership or other entity created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, an estate the income of which is subject to United States federal income taxation regardless of its source or any trust if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust.

“Valuation Date” has the meaning specified in Section 312(c).

“Vice President”, when used with respect to the Company or the Trustee, means any vice president, whether or not designated by a number or a word or words added before or after the title “vice president.”

“Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity, computed at the time of issuance of a Security (or, if applicable, at the most recent redetermination of interest on such Security) and as set forth in such Security in accordance with generally accepted United States bond yield computation principles.

SECTION 102. Compliance Certificates and Opinions. Upon any application or request by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any provision of this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture (including any covenant or condition compliance with which constitutes a condition precedent) relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent, if any, have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or request as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or request, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

Every certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a covenant or condition provided for in this Indenture (other than pursuant to [Article 10]) shall include:

(1) a statement that each individual signing such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition and the definitions herein relating thereto;

(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(3) a statement that, in the opinion of each such individual, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(4) a statement as to whether, in the opinion of each such individual, such covenant or condition has been complied with.

 

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SECTION 103. Form of Documents Delivered to Trustee. In any case where several matters are required to be certified by, or covered by an opinion of, any specified Person, it is not necessary that all such matters be certified by, or covered by the opinion of, only one such Person, or that they be so certified or covered by only one document, but one such Person may certify or give an opinion with respect to some matters and one or more other such Persons as to other matters, and any such Person may certify or give an opinion as to such matters in one or several documents.

Any certificate or opinion of an officer of the Company may be based, insofar as it relates to legal matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, counsel, unless such officer knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to the matters upon which his certificate or opinion is based are erroneous. Any Officers’ Certificate or Opinion of Counsel may be based, insofar as it relates to factual matters, upon a certificate or opinion of, or representations by, an officer or officers of the Company stating that the information with respect to such factual matters is in the possession of the Company unless such officer or counsel knows, or in the exercise of reasonable care should know, that the certificate or opinion or representations with respect to such matters are erroneous.

Where any Person is required to make, give or execute two or more applications, requests, consents, certificates, statements, opinions or other instruments under this Indenture, they may, but need not, be consolidated and form one instrument.

SECTION 104. Acts of Holders. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by Holders of the Outstanding Securities of all series or one or more series, as the case may be, may be embodied in and evidenced by one or more instruments of substantially similar tenor signed by such Holders in person or by agents duly appointed in writing. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be given or taken by Holders of Securities of such series may, alternatively, be embodied in and evidenced by the record of Holders of Securities of such series voting in favor thereof, either in person or by proxies duly appointed in writing, at any meeting of Holders of Securities of such series duly called and held in accordance with the provisions of Article Fifteen, or a combination of such instruments and any such record. Except as herein otherwise expressly provided, such action shall become effective when such instrument or instruments or record or both are delivered to the Trustee and, where it is hereby expressly required, to the Company or to all of them. Such instrument or instruments and any such record (and the action embodied therein and evidenced thereby) are herein sometimes referred to as the “Act” of the Holders signing such instrument or instruments or so voting at any such meeting. Proof of execution of any such instrument or of a writing appointing any such agent, or of the holding by any Person of a Security, shall be sufficient for any purpose of this Indenture (subject to section 315 of the TIA) and conclusive in favor of the Trustee, the Company and any agent of the Trustee or the Company, if made in the manner provided in this Section. The record of any meeting of Holders of Securities shall be proved in the manner provided in Section 1506.

Without limiting the generality of this Section 104, unless otherwise provided in or pursuant to this Indenture, a Holder, including a Depositary that is a Holder of a global Security (including through its nominee), may make, give or take, by a proxy or proxies, duly appointed in writing, any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act provided in or pursuant to this Indenture or Securities to be made, given or taken by the Holders, and a Depositary that is a Holder of a global Security may provide its proxy or proxies to the beneficial owners of interests in such global Security through such Depositary’s standing instructions and customary practices.

 

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(a) The fact and date of the execution by any Person of any such instrument or writing may be proved by the affidavit of a witness of such execution or by a certificate of a notary public or other officer authorized by law to take acknowledgments of deeds, certifying that the individual signing such instrument or writing acknowledged to him the execution thereof. Where such execution is by a signer acting in a capacity other than his individual capacity, such certificate or affidavit shall also constitute sufficient proof of authority. The fact and date of the execution of any such instrument or writing, or the authority of the Person executing the same, may also be proved in any other reasonable manner that the Trustee deems sufficient.

(b) The principal amount and serial numbers of Registered Securities held by any Person, and the date of holding the same, shall be proved by the Security Register.

(c) The principal amount and serial numbers of Bearer Securities held by any Person, and the date of holding the same, may be proved by the production of such Bearer Securities or by a certificate executed, as depositary, by any trust company, bank, banker or other depositary reasonably acceptable to the Company, wherever situated, if such certificate shall be deemed by the Trustee to be satisfactory, showing that at the date therein mentioned such Person had on deposit with such depositary, or exhibited to it, the Bearer Securities therein described; or such facts may be proved by the certificate or affidavit of the Person holding such Bearer Securities, if such certificate or affidavit is deemed by the Trustee to be satisfactory. The Trustee and the Company may assume that such ownership of any Bearer Security continues until (1) another certificate or affidavit bearing a later date issued in respect of the same Bearer Security is produced, or (2) such Bearer Security is produced to the Trustee by some other Person, or (3) such Bearer Security is surrendered in exchange for a Registered Security, or (4) such Bearer Security is no longer Outstanding. The principal amount and serial numbers of Bearer Securities held by any Person, and the date of holding the same, may also be proved in any other reasonable manner that the Trustee deems sufficient.

(d) If the Company shall solicit from the Holders of Registered Securities any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act, the Company may, at its option, in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, fix in advance a record date for the determination of Holders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. Notwithstanding TIA Section 316(c), such record date shall be the record date specified in or pursuant to such Board Resolution, which shall be a date not earlier than the date 30 days prior to the first solicitation of Holders generally in connection therewith and not later than the date such solicitation is completed. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act may be given before or after such record date, but only the Holders of record at the close of business on such record date shall be deemed to be Holders for the purposes of determining whether Holders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization,

 

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direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities shall be computed as of such record date; provided that no such authorization, agreement or consent by the Holders on such record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than eleven months after the record date.

(e) Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other Act of the Holder of any Security shall bind every future Holder of the same Security and the Holder of every Security issued upon the registration of transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in lieu thereof in respect of anything done, omitted or suffered to be done by the Trustee, any Security Registrar, any Paying Agent, any Authenticating Agent, the Company in reliance thereon, whether or not notation of such Act is made upon such Security.

SECTION 105. Notices, etc. to Trustee or the Company. Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or Act of Holders or other documents provided or permitted by this Indenture to be made upon, given or furnished to, or filed with,

(1) the Trustee by any Holder or by the Company shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder if made, given, furnished or filed in writing (including telecopy to [insert Trustee fax number]) to or with the Trustee at its Corporate Trust Office, Attention: Trust & Securities Services, or

(2) the Company by the Trustee or by any Holder shall be sufficient for every purpose hereunder (unless otherwise herein expressly provided) if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid or by overnight delivery service, to the Company addressed to it at the address of the Company’s principal office specified in the first paragraph of this Indenture, to the attention of its General Counsel, or at any other address previously furnished in writing to the Trustee by the Company.

SECTION 106. Notice to Holders; Waiver. Except as otherwise expressly provided herein or otherwise specified with respect to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301, where this Indenture provides for notice of any event to Holders of Registered Securities by the Company or the Trustee, such notice shall be sufficiently given if in writing and mailed, first-class postage prepaid, to each such Holder affected by such event, at his address as it appears in the Security Register, not later than the latest date, and not earlier than the earliest date, prescribed for the giving of such notice. In any case where notice to Holders of Registered Securities is given by mail, neither the failure to mail such notice, nor any defect in any notice so mailed, to any particular Holder shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Registered Securities or the sufficiency of any notice to Holders of Bearer Securities given as provided. Any notice mailed to a Holder in the manner herein prescribed shall be conclusively deemed to have been received by such Holder, whether or not such Holder actually receives such notice.

In case, by reason of the suspension of or irregularities in regular mail service or by reason of any other cause, it shall be impractical to mail notice of any event to Holders of Registered Securities when such notice is required to be given pursuant to any provision of this Indenture, then any manner of giving written notice as shall be satisfactory to the Trustee shall be deemed to be sufficient giving of such notice for every purpose hereunder.

 

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Except as otherwise expressly provided herein or otherwise specified with respect to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301, where this Indenture provides for notice to Holders of Bearer Securities of any event, such notice shall be sufficiently given to Holders of Bearer Securities if published in an Authorized Newspaper in The City of New York and in such other city or cities as may be specified in respect of such Securities on a Business Day at least twice, the first such publication to be not earlier than the earliest date, and not later than the latest date, prescribed for the giving of such notice. Any such notice shall be deemed to have been given on the date of such publication or, if published more than once, on the date of the first such publication.

If by reason of the suspension of publication of any Authorized Newspaper or Authorized Newspapers or by reason of any other cause, it shall be impracticable to publish any notice to Holders of Bearer Securities as provided above, then such notification to Holders of Bearer Securities as shall be given with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute sufficient written notice to such Holders for every purpose hereunder. Neither the failure to give notice by publication to Holders of Bearer Securities as provided above, nor any defect in any notice so published, shall affect the sufficiency of such notice with respect to other Holders of Bearer Securities or the sufficiency of any notice to Holders of Registered Securities given as provided herein.

Any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver required or permitted under this Indenture shall be in the English language, except that any published notice may be in an official language of the country of publication.

Where this Indenture provides for notice in any manner, such notice may be waived in writing by the Person entitled to receive such notice, either before or after the event, and such waiver shall be the equivalent of such notice. Waivers of notice by Holders shall be filed with the Trustee, but such filing shall not be a condition precedent to the validity of any action taken in reliance upon such waiver.

SECTION 107. Effect of Headings and Table of Contents. The Article and Section headings herein and the Table of Contents are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

SECTION 108. Successors and Assigns. All covenants and agreements in this Indenture by the Company shall bind its successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

SECTION 109. Separability Clause. In case any provision in this Indenture or in any Security or any coupon shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby.

SECTION 110. Benefits of Indenture. Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities or coupons, express or implied, shall give to any Person, other than the parties hereto, any Authenticating Agent, any Paying Agent, any Securities Registrar and their successors hereunder and the Holders of Securities or coupons, any benefit or any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under this Indenture.

 

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SECTION 111. Governing Law. THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES AND COUPONS SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO CONFLICTS OF LAW PRINCIPLES OF SUCH STATE OTHER THAN NEW YORK GENERAL OBLIGATIONS LAW SECTION 5-1401. THIS INDENTURE IS SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE TRUST INDENTURE ACT THAT ARE REQUIRED TO BE PART OF THIS INDENTURE AND SHALL, TO THE EXTENT APPLICABLE, BE GOVERNED BY SUCH PROVISIONS.

SECTION 112. Legal Holidays. Unless otherwise specified in or pursuant to this Indenture or any Securities, in any case where any Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date, Repayment Date, sinking fund payment date or Stated Maturity or Maturity of any Security shall not be a Business Day at any Place of Payment, then payment of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, need not be made at such Place of Payment on such date, but may be made on the next succeeding Business Day at such Place of Payment with the same force and effect as if made on such Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date, Repayment Date, sinking fund payment date, Stated Maturity or Maturity, as the case may be, provided that no interest shall accrue on the amount so payable for the period from and after such Interest Payment Date, Redemption Date, Repayment Date, sinking fund payment date, Stated Maturity or Maturity, as the case may be, to such next succeeding Business Day.

SECTION 113. No Recourse. No recourse for the payment of the principal of or premium, if any, or interest on any Security or any coupons appertaining thereto, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, and no recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of the Company in this Indenture or in any supplemental indenture, or in any Security or any coupons appertaining thereto, or because of the creation of any indebtedness represented thereby, shall be had against any director, officer, employee, or stockholder as such, past, present or future, of the Company or any of its Affiliates or any successor Person of the Company, either directly or through the Company or any of its Affiliates or any successor Person of the Company, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that all such liability is hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issue of the Securities.

SECTION 114. Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture.

The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

(i) “indenture securities” means the Securities;

(ii) “indenture security Holder” means a Holder of a Security;

(iii) “indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture;

 

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(iv) “indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee; and

(v) “obligor” on the Securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA have the meanings so assigned to them.

SECTION 115. Rules of Construction. Unless the context otherwise requires:

(i) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

(ii) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

(iii) “or” is not exclusive;

 

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  (iv)

words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular; and

 

  (v)

provisions apply to successive events and transactions.

SECTION 116. Force Majeure. In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes and acts of God; it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

SECTION 117. U.S.A. Patriot Act. The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, [Trustee], like all financial institutions and in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify, and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide [Trustee] with such information as it may request in order for [Trustee] to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

ARTICLE 2

SECURITY FORMS

SECTION 201. Forms Generally. The Registered Securities, if any, of each series, the Bearer Securities, if any, of each series and related coupons, the temporary global Securities of each series, if any, and the permanent global Securities of each series, if any, shall be in substantially the forms as shall be established by, or pursuant to a Board Resolution or, subject to Section 303, set forth in, or determined in the manner provided in, an Officers’ Certificate pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, or in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in each case with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as are required or permitted by this Indenture, and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification and such legends or endorsements placed thereon as may be required to comply with the rules of any securities exchange or as may, consistently herewith, be determined by the officers of the Company executing such Securities or coupons as evidenced by their execution of such Securities or coupons. If the forms of Securities or coupons of any series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or Assistant Secretary of the Company, and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Company Order contemplated by Section 303 for the authentication and delivery of such Securities or coupons. Any portion of the text of any Security may be set forth on the reverse thereof, with an appropriate reference thereto on the face of the Security.

Unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, Bearer Securities shall have interest coupons attached.

The Trustee’s certificate of authentication on all Securities shall be in substantially the form set forth in this Article.

 

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The definitive Securities and coupons, if any, shall be printed, lithographed or engraved on steel-engraved borders or may be produced in any other manner, all as determined by the officers of the Company executing such Securities or coupons, as evidenced by their execution of such Securities or coupons.

SECTION 202. Form of Trustees Certificate of Authentication. Subject to Section 611, the Trustee’s certificate of authentication shall be in substantially the following form:

TRUSTEE’S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICATION

Dated: ____________________

This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

[Trustee],
  as Trustee
By:    
  Authorized Signatory

SECTION 203. Securities Issuable in Global Form. If Securities of or within a series are issuable in global form, as specified as contemplated by Section 301, then, notwithstanding clause (8) of Section 301, any such Security shall represent such of the Outstanding Securities of such series as shall be specified therein and may provide that it shall represent the aggregate amount of Outstanding Securities of such series from time to time endorsed thereon and that the aggregate amount of Outstanding Securities of such series represented thereby may from time to time be increased or decreased to reflect exchanges. Any endorsement of a Security in global form to reflect the amount, or any increase or decrease in the amount, of Outstanding Securities represented thereby shall be made by the Trustee in such manner and upon instructions given by such Person or Persons as shall be specified therein or in the Company Order to be delivered to the Trustee pursuant to Section 303 or Section 304. Subject to the provisions of Section 303 and, if applicable, Section 304, the Trustee shall deliver and redeliver any Security in permanent global form in the manner and upon instructions given by the Person or Persons specified therein or in the applicable Company Order. If a Company Order pursuant to Section 303 or Section 304 has been, or simultaneously is, delivered, any instructions by the Company with respect to endorsement or delivery or redelivery of a Security in global form shall be in writing but need not comply with Section 102 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel.

The provisions of the last sentence of Section 303 shall apply to any Security represented by a Security in global form if such Security was never issued and sold by the Company and the Company delivers to the Trustee the Security in global form together with written instructions (which need not comply with Section 102 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel) with regard to the reduction in the principal amount of Securities represented thereby, together with the written statement contemplated by the last sentence of Section 303.

 

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Notwithstanding any provisions of Section 307 to the contrary, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, payment of principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on any Security in global form shall be made to the Person or Persons specified therein.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 309 and except as provided in the preceding paragraph, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall treat as the Holder of such principal amount of Outstanding Securities represented by a permanent global Security (i), in the case of a global Registered Security, the Holder thereof, or (ii) in the case of a global Bearer Security, Euroclear or Clearstream.

ARTICLE 3

THE SECURITIES

SECTION 301. Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series. The aggregate principal amount of Securities which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited.

The Securities may be issued in one or more series. There shall be established in one or more Board Resolutions of the Company or pursuant to authority granted by one or more Board Resolutions of the Company and, subject to Section 303, set forth in, or determined in the manner provided in, an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto, prior to the issuance of Securities of any series, any or all of the following, as applicable (each of which (except for the matters set forth in clauses (1), (2) and (17) below), if so provided, may be determined from time to time by the Company with respect to unissued Securities of the series and set forth in such Securities of the series when issued from time to time):

(1) title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other series of Securities) and whether such Securities are senior or subordinated;

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the series pursuant to Sections 304, 305, 306, 906, 1107 or 1305);

(3) the date or dates, or the method by which such date or dates will be determined or extended, on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

 

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(4) the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest, if any, or the method by which such rate or rates shall be determined, the date or dates from which any such interest shall accrue, or the method by which such date or dates shall be determined, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest shall be payable, the right, if any, of the Company to defer or extend an Interest Payment Date, and the Regular Record Date, if any, for the interest payable on any Registered Security on any Interest Payment Date, or the method by which such date or dates shall be determined, and the basis upon which interest shall be calculated if other than on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

(5) the place or places, if any, other than or in addition to the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York, where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on Securities of the series shall be payable (which in the case of Bearer Securities shall be outside the United States), where any Registered Securities of the series may be surrendered for registration of transfer, where Securities of the series may be surrendered for exchange, where Securities of the series that are convertible or exchangeable may be surrendered for conversion or exchange, as applicable, and, if different than the location specified in Section 105, the place or places where notices or demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of the series and this Indenture may be served;

(6) the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, the Currency in which, and other terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company, if the Company is to have that option;

(7) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem, repay or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of a Holder thereof, and the period or periods within which or the date or dates on which, the price or prices at which, the Currency in which, and other terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed, repaid or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(8) if other than minimum denominations of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 above such minimum denomination, the denomination or denominations in which any Registered Securities of the series shall be issuable and, if other than denominations of $5,000, the denomination or denominations in which any Bearer Securities of the series shall be issuable;

(9) if other than the Trustee, the identity of each Security Registrar and/or Paying Agent;

(10) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series that shall be payable upon an acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502, upon redemption of the Securities of the series which are redeemable before their Stated Maturity, upon surrender for repayment at the option of the Holder, or which the Trustee shall be entitled to claim pursuant to Section 502 or the method by which such portion shall be determined;

 

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(11) if other than Dollar, the Currency or Currencies in which payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the Securities of the series shall be made or in which the Securities of the series shall be denominated and the particular provisions applicable thereto in accordance with, in addition to or in lieu of any of the provisions of Section 312;

(12) whether the amount of payments of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the Securities of the series may be determined with reference to an index, formula or other method (which index, formula or method may be based, without limitation, on one or more Currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices), and the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

(13) whether the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on the Securities of the series are to be payable, at the election of the Company or a Holder thereof, in a Currency other than that in which such Securities are denominated or stated to be payable, the period or periods within which (including the Election Date), and the terms and conditions upon which, such election may be made, and the time and manner of determining the exchange rate between the Currency in which such Securities are denominated or stated to be payable and the Currency in which such Securities are to be so paid, in each case in accordance with, in addition to or in lieu of any of the provisions of Section 312;

(14) the designation of the initial Exchange Rate Agent, if any, or any depositaries;

(15) if Sections 1402 and/or 1403 are not applicable to the Securities of the series and any provisions in modification of, in addition to or in lieu of any of the provisions of Article Fourteen that shall be applicable to the Securities of the series;

(16) provisions, if any, granting special rights to the Holders of Securities of the series upon the occurrence of such events as may be specified;

(17) any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the Events of Default or covenants of the Company or with respect to Securities of the series, whether or not such Events of Default or covenants are consistent with the Events of Default or covenants set forth herein;

(18) whether Securities of the series are to be issuable as Registered Securities, Bearer Securities (with or without coupons) or both, any restrictions applicable to the offer, sale or delivery of Bearer Securities, whether such Securities are to be issuable initially in temporary global form, whether such Securities are to be issuable in permanent global form with or without coupons and, if so, whether beneficial owners of interests in any such permanent global Security may exchange such interests for definitive Securities of the series and of like tenor of any authorized form and denomination and the circumstances under which any such exchanges may occur, if other

 

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than in the manner provided in Section 305, whether Registered Securities of the series may be exchanged for Bearer Securities of the series (if permitted by applicable laws and regulations), and the circumstances under which and the place or places where any such exchanges may be made and if Securities of the series are to be issuable in global form, the identity of any Depositary therefor;

(19) the date as of which any Bearer Securities of the series and any temporary global Security representing Outstanding Bearer Securities of the series shall be dated if other than the date of original issuance of the first Security of the series to be issued;

(20) the Person to whom any interest on any Registered Security of the series shall be payable, if other than the Person in whose name that Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest, the manner in which, or the Person to whom, any interest on any Bearer Security of the series shall be payable, if otherwise than upon presentation and surrender of the coupons appertaining thereto as they severally mature, and the extent to which, or the manner in which, any interest payable on a temporary global Security on an Interest Payment Date will be paid if other than in the manner provided in Section 304; and the extent to which, or the manner in which, any interest payable on a permanent global Security on an Interest Payment Date will be paid if other than in the manner provided in Section 307;

(21) if Securities of the series are to be issuable in definitive form (whether upon original issue or upon exchange of a temporary Security of such series) only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and/or terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

(22) if the Securities of the series are to be issued upon the exercise of warrants, the time, manner and place for such Securities to be authenticated and delivered;

(23) whether, under what circumstances and the Currency in which the Company will pay Additional Amounts as contemplated by [Article 10 on the Securities of the series to any Holder (including any modification to the definition of such term) in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether the Company will have the option to redeem such Securities rather than pay such Additional Amounts (and the terms of any such option);

(24) if the Securities of the series are to be convertible into or exchangeable for any securities of any Person (including the Company), the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable;

(25) whether the Securities of the series are subject to subordination and, if so, the terms of such subordination; and

(26) any other terms, conditions, rights and preferences (or limitations on such rights and preferences) relating to the series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act or the provisions of this Indenture).

 

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All Securities of any one series and the coupons appertaining to any Bearer Securities of such series shall be substantially identical except, in the case of Registered Securities, as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to such Board Resolution or pursuant to authority granted by one or more Board Resolutions (subject to Section 303) and set forth in such Officers’ Certificate or in any such indenture supplemental hereto. Not all Securities of any one series need be issued at the same time, and, unless otherwise provided, a series may be reopened, without the consent of the Holders, for issuances of additional Securities of such series.

If any of the terms of the Securities of any series are established by action taken pursuant to one or more Board Resolutions or pursuant to authority granted by one or more Board Resolutions, such Board Resolutions shall be delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the issuance of the first Security of such series.

SECTION 302. Denominations. The Securities of each series shall be issuable in such denominations as shall be specified as contemplated by Section 301. With respect to Securities of any series denominated in Dollars, in the absence of any such provisions with respect to the Securities of such series, the Registered Securities of such series, other than Registered Securities issued in global form (which may be of any denomination), shall be issuable in a minimum denomination of $2,000 and integral multiples of $1,000 above such minimum denomination and the Bearer Securities of such series, other than the Bearer Securities issued in global form (which may be of any denomination), shall be issuable in the denomination of $5,000.

SECTION 303. Execution, Authentication, Delivery and Dating. The Securities and any coupons appertaining thereto shall be executed on behalf of the Company by an individual or individuals duly authorized by the Board of Directors of the Company to execute the Securities and the coupons. The signature of any of these authorized persons on the Securities or coupons may be the manual or facsimile signatures of the present or any future such authorized person and may be imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities.

Securities or coupons bearing the manual or facsimile signatures of individuals who were at the time of such execution of the Securities or coupons the proper officers of the Company shall bind the Company, notwithstanding that such individuals or any of them have ceased to hold such offices prior to the authentication and delivery of such Securities or did not hold such offices at the date of such Securities.

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series, together with any coupons appertaining thereto, duly executed by the Company, to the Trustee for authentication, together with a Company Order for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, and the Trustee in accordance with such Company Order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities; provided, however, that, in connection with its original issuance, no Bearer Security shall be mailed or otherwise delivered to any location in the United States; and provided further that, unless otherwise specified with respect to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301, a Bearer Security may be delivered in connection with its original issuance only if the Person entitled to receive such Bearer Security shall have furnished a certificate in the form set forth in Exhibit A-1

 

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to this Indenture (or such other certificate as may be specified with respect to any series of Security pursuant to Section 301), dated no earlier than 15 days prior to the earlier of the date on which such Bearer Security is delivered and the date on which any temporary Security first becomes exchangeable for such Bearer Security in accordance with the terms of such temporary Security and this Indenture. If any Security shall be represented by a permanent global Bearer Security, then, for purposes of this Section and Section 304, the notation of a beneficial owner’s interest therein upon original issuance of such Security or upon exchange of a portion of a temporary global Security shall be deemed to be delivery in connection with its original issuance of such beneficial owner’s interest in such permanent global Security. Except as permitted by Section 306, the Trustee shall not authenticate and deliver any Bearer Security unless all appurtenant coupons for interest then matured have been detached and cancelled. If not all the Securities of any series are to be issued at one time and if the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate pursuant to a Board Resolution, or supplemental indenture establishing such series shall so permit, such Company Order may set forth procedures acceptable to the Trustee for the issuance of such Securities and determining terms of particular Securities of such series such as interest rate or formula, maturity, any redemption or repayment provisions, date of issuance and date from which interest shall accrue.

In authenticating such Securities, and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall receive, and shall be fully protected in conclusively relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating in effect (subject to customary exceptions):

 

  (i)

that the form or forms of such Securities and any coupons have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture;

 

  (ii)

that the terms of such Securities and any coupons have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture;

 

  (iii)

that such Securities and coupons, when completed by appropriate insertions and executed and delivered by the Company to the Trustee for authentication in accordance with this Indenture, authenticated and delivered by the Trustee in accordance with this Indenture and issued in the manner and subject to any conditions specified in such Opinion of Counsel, will be the legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable in accordance with their terms, subject to the effect of any applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium and other similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally (including without limitation on all laws relating to fraudulent transfers) and to general principles of equity;

 

  (iv)

that all laws and requirements in respect of the execution and delivery by the Company of such Securities, coupons, if any, and of the supplemental indentures, if any, have been complied with and that authentication and delivery of such Securities and coupons, if any, and the execution and delivery of the supplemental indenture, if any, by the Trustee will not violate the terms of the Indenture;

 

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  (v)

that the Company has the corporate power to issue such Securities and any coupons and has duly taken all necessary corporate action with respect to such issuance; and

 

  (vi)

that the issuance of such Securities and coupons, if any, will not contravene the articles of incorporation or by-laws of the Company or result in any violation of any of the terms or provisions of any law or regulation or of any indenture, mortgage or other agreement known to such Counsel by which the Company is bound.

Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 301 and of the preceding two paragraphs, if not all the Securities of any series are to be issued at one time, it shall not be necessary to deliver the Officers’ Certificate otherwise required pursuant to Section 301 or the Company Order and Opinion of Counsel otherwise required pursuant to the preceding two paragraphs prior to or at the time of issuance of each Security, but such documents shall be delivered prior to or at the time of issuance of the first Security of such series.

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate and deliver any such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture is unlawful or will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner which is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

Each Registered Security shall be dated the date of its authentication and each Bearer Security shall be dated as of the date specified as contemplated by Section 301.

No Security or coupon shall be entitled to any benefit under this Indenture or be valid or obligatory for any purpose unless there appears on such Security a certificate of authentication substantially in the form provided for herein duly executed by the Trustee by manual signature of an authorized signatory, and such certificate upon any Security shall be conclusive evidence, and the only evidence, that such Security has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, if any Security shall have been authenticated and delivered hereunder but never issued and sold by the Company, and the Company shall deliver such Security to the Trustee for cancellation as provided in Section 310 together with a written statement (which need not comply with Section 102 and need not be accompanied by an Opinion of Counsel) stating that such Security has never been issued and sold by the Company, for all purposes of this Indenture such Security shall be deemed never to have been authenticated and delivered hereunder and shall never be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

SECTION 304. Temporary Securities. Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and upon Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities which are printed, lithographed, typewritten, mimeographed or otherwise produced, in any authorized denomination, substantially of the tenor of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, in registered form or, if authorized, in bearer form with one or more coupons or without coupons, and with such appropriate insertions, omissions, substitutions and other variations as the officers executing such Securities or coupons may determine, as conclusively evidenced by their execution of such Securities or coupons, as the case may be. Such temporary Securities may be in global form.

 

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Except in the case of temporary Securities in global form (which shall be exchanged in accordance with the provisions of the following paragraphs), if temporary Securities of any series are issued, the Company will cause definitive Securities of that series to be prepared without unreasonable delay. After the preparation of definitive Securities of such series, the temporary Securities of such series shall be exchangeable for definitive Securities of such series upon surrender of the temporary Securities of such series at the office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment for that series, without charge to the Holder. Upon surrender for cancellation of any one or more temporary Securities of any series (accompanied by any unmatured coupons appertaining thereto), the Company shall execute and the Trustee, upon receipt of a written instruction, shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a like principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series and of like tenor of authorized denominations; provided, however, that no definitive Bearer Security shall be delivered in exchange for a temporary Registered Security; and provided further that a definitive Bearer Security shall be delivered in exchange for a temporary Bearer Security only in compliance with the conditions set forth in Section 303. Until so exchanged the temporary Securities of any series shall in all respects be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series.

If temporary Securities of any series are issued in global form, any such temporary global Security shall, unless otherwise provided therein, be delivered to the London office of a depositary or common depositary (the “Common Depositary”), for the benefit of Euroclear and Clearstream, for credit to the respective accounts of the beneficial owners of such Securities (or to such other accounts as they may direct).

Without unnecessary delay but in any event not later than the date specified in, or determined pursuant to the terms of, any such temporary global Security (the “Exchange Date”), the Company shall deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities of the same series executed by the Company, in aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of such temporary global Security. On or after the Exchange Date such temporary global Security shall be surrendered by the Common Depositary to the Trustee, as the Company’s agent for such purpose, to be exchanged, in whole or from time to time in part, for definitive Securities of the same series without charge and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in exchange for each portion of such temporary global Security, an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series of authorized denominations and of like tenor as the portion of such temporary global Security to be exchanged. The definitive Securities to be delivered in exchange for any such temporary global Security shall be in bearer form, registered form, permanent global bearer form or permanent global registered form, or any combination thereof, as specified as contemplated by Section 301, and, if any combination thereof is so specified, as requested by the beneficial owner thereof, provided that, unless otherwise specified in such temporary global Security, upon such presentation by the Common Depositary, such temporary global Security is accompanied by a certificate dated the Exchange Date or a subsequent date and signed by Euroclear as to the portion of such temporary global Security held for its account then to be exchanged and a certificate dated the Exchange Date or a subsequent date and signed by Clearstream as to the portion of such temporary global Security held for its account then to be

 

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exchanged, each in the form set forth in Exhibit A-2 to this Indenture (or in such other form as may be established pursuant to Section 301); and provided, however, that definitive Bearer Securities shall be delivered in exchange for a portion of a temporary global Security only in compliance with the requirements of Section 303.

Unless otherwise specified in such temporary global Security, the interest of a beneficial owner of a temporary global Security shall be exchanged for definitive Securities of the same series and of like tenor following the Exchange Date when the account holder instructs Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, to request such exchange on his behalf and delivers to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, a certificate in the form set forth in Exhibit A-1 to this Indenture (or in such other form as may be established pursuant to Section 301), dated no earlier than 15 days prior to the Exchange Date, copies of which certificate shall be available from the offices of Euroclear and Clearstream, the Trustee, any Authenticating Agent appointed for such series of Securities and each Paying Agent. Unless otherwise specified in such temporary global Security, any such exchange shall be made free of charge to the beneficial owners of such temporary global Security, except that a Person receiving definitive Securities must bear the cost of insurance, postage, transportation and the like in the event that such Person does not take delivery of such definitive Securities in person at the offices of Euroclear or Clearstream. Definitive Securities in bearer form to be delivered in exchange for any portion of a temporary global Security shall be delivered only outside the United States.

Until exchanged in full as hereinabove provided, the temporary Securities of any series shall in all respects be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of the same series and of like tenor authenticated and delivered hereunder, except that, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, interest payable on a temporary global Security on an Interest Payment Date for Securities of such series occurring prior to the applicable Exchange Date shall be payable to Euroclear and Clearstream on such Interest Payment Date upon delivery by Euroclear and Clearstream to the Trustee or the applicable Paying Agent of a certificate or certificates in the form set forth in Exhibit A-2 to this Indenture (or in such other form as may be established pursuant to Section 301), for credit without further interest thereon on or after such Interest Payment Date to the respective accounts of the Persons who are the beneficial owners of such temporary global Security on such Interest Payment Date and who have each delivered to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, a certificate dated no earlier than 15 days prior to the Interest Payment Date occurring prior to such Exchange Date in the form set forth in Exhibit A-1 to this Indenture (or in such other form as may be established pursuant to Section 301). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein contained, the certifications made pursuant to this paragraph shall satisfy the certification requirements of the preceding two paragraphs of this Section and of the third paragraph of Section 303 of this Indenture and the interests of the Persons who are the beneficial owners of the temporary global Security with respect to which such certification was made will be exchanged for definitive Securities of the same series and of like tenor on the Exchange Date or the date of certification if such date occurs after the Exchange Date, without further act or deed by such beneficial owners. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, no payments of principal (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, owing with respect to a beneficial interest in a temporary global Security will be made unless and until such interest in such temporary global Security shall have been exchanged for an interest in a definitive Security. Any interest so received by Euroclear and Clearstream and not paid as herein provided shall be returned to the Trustee or the applicable Paying Agent immediately prior to the expiration of two years after such Interest Payment Date in order to be repaid to the Company in accordance with (but otherwise subject to) [Article 10].

 

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SECTION 305. Registration, Registration of Transfer and Exchange. The Company or the Trustee shall cause to be kept at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee a register for each series of Securities (the registers maintained in the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee and in any other office or agency of the Company in a Place of Payment being herein sometimes collectively referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall provide for the registration of Registered Securities and of transfers of Registered Securities; provided, however, that there shall be only one Security Register per series of Securities. The Security Register shall be in written form or any other form capable of being converted into written form within a reasonable time. At all reasonable times, the Security Register shall be open to inspection by the Trustee. The Trustee is hereby initially appointed as security registrar (the “Security Registrar”) for the purpose of registering Registered Securities and transfers of Registered Securities as herein provided and for facilitating exchanges of temporary global Securities for permanent global Securities or definitive Securities, or both, or of permanent global Securities for definitive Securities, as herein provided.

Upon surrender for registration of transfer of any Registered Security of any series at the office or agency in a Place of Payment for that series, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in the name of the designated transferee, one or more new Registered Securities of the same series, of any authorized denominations and of a like aggregate principal amount and tenor.

At the option of the Holder, Registered Securities of any series may be exchanged for other Registered Securities of the same series, of any authorized denomination and of a like aggregate principal amount, upon surrender of the Registered Securities to be exchanged at such office or agency. Whenever any Registered Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Registered Securities which the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive. Unless otherwise specified with respect to any series of Securities as contemplated by Section 301, Bearer Securities may not be issued in exchange for Registered Securities.

If (but only if) expressly permitted in or pursuant to the applicable Board Resolution and (subject to Section 303) set forth in the applicable Officers’ Certificate, or in any indenture supplemental hereto, delivered as contemplated by Section 301, at the option of the Holder, Bearer Securities of any series may be exchanged for Registered Securities of the same series of any authorized denomination and of a like aggregate principal amount and tenor, upon surrender of the Bearer Securities to be exchanged at any such office or agency, with all unmatured coupons and all matured coupons in default thereto appertaining. If the Holder of a Bearer Security is unable to produce any such unmatured coupon or coupons or matured coupon or coupons in default, any such permitted exchange may be effected if the Bearer Securities are accompanied by payment in funds acceptable to the Company in an amount equal to the face amount of such missing coupon or coupons, or the surrender of such missing coupon or coupons may be waived by the Company and the Trustee if there is furnished to them such security or indemnity as they may reasonably require to save each of them and any Paying Agent harmless. If thereafter the Holder of such Security shall surrender to any Paying Agent any such missing

 

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coupon in respect of which such a payment shall have been made, such Holder shall be entitled to receive the amount of such payment; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in [Article 10], interest represented by coupons shall be payable only upon presentation and surrender of those coupons at an office or agency located outside the United States. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in case a Bearer Security of any series is surrendered at any such office or agency in a permitted exchange for a Registered Security of the same series and like tenor after the close of business at such office or agency on (i) any Regular Record Date and before the opening of business at such office or agency on the relevant Interest Payment Date, or (ii) any Special Record Date and before the opening of business at such office or agency on the related proposed date for payment of Defaulted Interest, such Bearer Security shall be surrendered without the coupon relating to such Interest Payment Date or proposed date for payment, as the case may be, and interest or Defaulted Interest, as the case may be, will not be payable on such Interest Payment Date or proposed date for payment, as the case may be, in respect of the Registered Security issued in exchange for such Bearer Security, but will be payable only to the Holder of such coupon when due in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture.

Whenever any Securities are so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, the Securities that the Holder making the exchange is entitled to receive.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, any permanent global Security shall be exchangeable only as provided in this paragraph. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, all Bearer Securities issued in permanent global form, upon request of the beneficial owner and in accordance with the following provisions, will be exchangeable for definitive Bearer Securities. If any beneficial owner of an interest in a permanent global Security is entitled to exchange such interest for Securities of such series and of like tenor and principal amount of another authorized form and denomination, as specified as contemplated by Section 301 and provided that any applicable notice provided in the permanent global Security shall have been given, then without unnecessary delay but in any event not later than the earliest date on which such interest may be so exchanged, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities of that series in aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of such beneficial owner’s interest in such permanent global Security, executed by the Company. On or after the earliest date on which such interests may be so exchanged, such permanent global Security shall be surrendered by the Common Depositary or such other depositary as shall be specified in the Company Order with respect thereto to the Trustee, as the Company’s agent for such purpose, to be exchanged, in whole or from time to time in part, for definitive Securities of the same series without charge, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in exchange for each portion of such permanent global Security, an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of the same series of authorized denominations and of like tenor as the portion of such permanent global Security to be exchanged which, unless the Securities of the series are not issuable both as Bearer Securities and as Registered Securities, as specified as contemplated by Section 301, shall be in the form of Bearer Securities or Registered Securities, or any combination thereof, as shall be specified by the beneficial owner thereof; provided, however, that no such exchanges may occur during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before any selection of Securities to be

 

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redeemed and ending on the relevant Redemption Date if the Security for which exchange is requested may be among those selected for redemption; and provided, further, that no Bearer Security delivered in exchange for a portion of a permanent global Security shall be mailed or otherwise delivered to any location in the United States. If a definitive Registered Security is issued in exchange for any portion of a permanent global Security after the close of business at the office or agency where such exchange occurs on (i) any Regular Record Date and before the opening of business at such office or agency on the relevant Interest Payment Date, or (ii) any Special Record Date and before the opening of business at such office or agency on the related proposed date for payment of Defaulted Interest, interest or Defaulted Interest, as the case may be, will not be payable on such Interest Payment Date or proposed date for payment, as the case may be, in respect of such definitive Registered Security, but will be payable on such Interest Payment Date or proposed date for payment, as the case may be, only to the Person to whom interest in respect of such portion of such permanent global Security is payable in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture.

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

Every Registered Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company and the Security Registrar, duly executed by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in connection with any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities, other than exchanges pursuant to Sections 304, 906, 1107 or 1305 not involving any transfer.

If at any time the Depositary for any permanent global Registered Securities of any series notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such permanent global Registered Securities or if at any time the Depositary for such permanent global Registered Securities shall no longer be eligible to so continue under applicable law, the Company shall appoint a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law with respect to such permanent global Registered Securities. If a successor Depositary eligible under applicable law for such Registered Global Securities is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such ineligibility or if there has occurred and is continuing an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of any series, the Company will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Company Order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and deliver such definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor, in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of such permanent global Registered Securities, in exchange for such permanent global Registered Securities.

 

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The Company may at any time and in its sole discretion determine that any permanent global Registered Securities of any series shall no longer be maintained in global form. In such event the Company will execute, and the Trustee, upon receipt of the Company’s order for the authentication and delivery of definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor, will authenticate and deliver, definitive Registered Securities of such series and tenor in any authorized denominations, in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of such permanent global Registered Securities, in exchange for such permanent global Registered Securities.

The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the selection for redemption of Securities of that series under Section 1103 or 1203 and ending at the close of business on (A) if Securities of the series are issuable only as Registered Securities, the day of the mailing of the relevant notice of redemption and (B) if Securities of the series are issuable as Bearer Securities, the day of the first publication of the relevant notice of redemption or, if Securities of the series are also issuable as Registered Securities and there is no publication, the mailing of the relevant notice of redemption, or (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Registered Security so selected for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any Security being redeemed in part, or (iii) to exchange any Bearer Security so selected for redemption except that such a Bearer Security may be exchanged for a Registered Security of that series and like tenor, provided that such Registered Security shall be simultaneously surrendered for redemption, or (iv) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange any Security which has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the Holder, except the portion, if any, of such Security not to be so repaid.

The Trustee shall have no obligation or duty to monitor, determine or inquire as to compliance with any restrictions on transfer that may be imposed under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of any series pursuant to the terms thereof established as contemplated by Section 301 or under applicable law with respect to any transfer of any interest in any such Security (including any transfers between or among any depositary (including any Depositary or Common Depositary), or its nominee, as a Holder of a Security issued in global form, any participants in such depositary or owners or holders of beneficial interests in any such global Security) other than to require delivery of such certificates and other documentation or evidence as are expressly required by, and to do so if and when expressly required by, the terms of such Securities if and as may be so established in respect of such Securities, and to examine the same to determine substantial compliance as to form with the express requirements thereof.

SECTION 306. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. If any mutilated Security or a Security with a mutilated coupon appertaining to it is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously Outstanding, with coupons corresponding to the coupons, if any, appertaining to the surrendered Security.

 

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If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security or coupon and (ii) such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them and any agent of either of them harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security or coupon has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security or in exchange for the Security to which a destroyed, lost or stolen coupon appertains (with all appurtenant coupons not destroyed, lost or stolen), a new Security of the same series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously Outstanding, with coupons corresponding to the coupons, if any, appertaining to such destroyed, lost or stolen Security or to the Security to which such destroyed, lost or stolen coupon appertains.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the previous two paragraphs, in case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security or coupon has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, with coupons corresponding to the coupons, if any, appertaining to such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security or to the Security to which such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen coupon appertains, pay such Security or coupon; provided, however, that payment of principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on Bearer Securities shall, except as otherwise provided in [Article 10], be payable only at an office or agency located outside the United States and, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, any interest on Bearer Securities shall be payable only upon presentation and surrender of the coupons appertaining thereto.

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

Every new Security of any series, with its coupons, if any, issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security, or in exchange for a Security to which a mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen coupon appertains, shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security and its coupons, if any, or the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen coupon shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that series and their coupons, if any, duly issued hereunder.

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities or coupons.

SECTION 307. Payment of Interest; Interest Rights Preserved; Optional Interest Reset. (i) Unless otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 301 with respect to any series of Securities, interest, if any, on any Registered Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name such Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the Regular Record Date for such interest at the office or agency of the Company maintained for such purpose pursuant to [Article 10]; provided, however, that each installment of interest, if any, on any Registered Security (other than a global Security) on an Interest

 

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Payment Date may at the Company’s option be paid by (i) mailing a check for such interest, payable to or upon the written order of the Person entitled thereto pursuant to Section 309, to the address of such Person as it appears on the Security Register or (ii) transfer to an account located in the United States maintained by the payee.

Unless otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 301 with respect to the Securities of any series, payment of interest, if any, may be made, in the case of a Bearer Security, by transfer to an account located outside the United States maintained by the payee.

Unless otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 301, every permanent global Security will provide that interest, if any, payable on any Interest Payment Date will be paid to each of Euroclear and Clearstream with respect to that portion of such permanent global Security held for its account by the Common Depositary, for the purpose of permitting each of Euroclear and Clearstream to credit the interest, if any, received by it in respect of such permanent global Security to the accounts of the beneficial owners thereof.

Any interest on any Registered Security of any series which is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall forthwith cease to be payable to the Holder on the relevant Regular Record Date by virtue of having been such Holder, and such defaulted interest and, if applicable, interest on such defaulted interest (to the extent lawful) at the rate or formula specified in the Securities of such series (such defaulted interest and, if applicable, interest thereon herein collectively called “Defaulted Interest”) may be paid by the Company, at its election in each case, as provided in clause (1) or (2) below:

(1) The Company may elect to make payment of any Defaulted Interest to the Persons in whose names the Registered Securities of such series (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner. The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each Registered Security of such series and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money in the Currency in which the Securities of such series are payable (except as otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301 for the Securities of such series and except, if applicable, as provided in Sections 312(b), 312(d) and 312(e)) equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit on or prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a Special Record Date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest that shall be not more than 15 days and not less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such Special Record Date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor to be given in the manner provided in Section 106, not less than 10 days prior to such Special Record Date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the Special Record Date therefor having been so given, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose name the Registered Securities of such series (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on such Special Record Date and shall no longer be payable pursuant to the following clause (2).

 

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(2) The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on the Registered Securities of any series in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

(b) The provisions of this Section 307(b) may be made applicable to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301 (with such modifications, additions or substitutions as may be specified pursuant to such Section 301). The interest rate (or the spread or spread multiplier used to calculate such interest rate, if applicable) on any Security of such series may be reset by the Company on the date or dates specified on the face of such Security (each an “Optional Reset Date”). The Company may exercise such option with respect to such Security by notifying the Trustee of such exercise at least 50 but not more than 60 days prior to an Optional Reset Date for such Security. Not later than 40 days prior to each Optional Reset Date, the Trustee shall transmit, in the manner provided for in Section 106, to the Holder of any such Security a notice (the “Reset Notice”) indicating whether the Company has elected to reset the interest rate (or the spread or spread multiplier used to calculate such interest rate, if applicable), and if so (i) such new interest rate (or such new spread or spread multiplier, if applicable) and (ii) the provisions, if any, for redemption during the period from such Optional Reset Date to the next Optional Reset Date or if there is no such next Optional Reset Date, to the Stated Maturity of such Security (each such period a “Subsequent Interest Period”), including the date or dates on which or the period or periods during which and the price or prices at which such redemption may occur during the Subsequent Interest Period.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, not later than 20 days prior to the Optional Reset Date, the Company may, at its option, revoke the interest rate (or the spread or spread multiplier used to calculate such interest rate, if applicable) provided for in the Reset Notice and establish an interest rate (or a spread or spread multiplier used to calculate such interest rate, if applicable) that is higher than the interest rate (or the spread or spread multiplier, if applicable) provided for in the Reset Notice, for the Subsequent Interest Period by causing the Trustee to transmit, in the manner provided for in Section 106, notice of such higher interest rate (or such higher spread or spread multiplier, if applicable) to the Holder of such Security. Such notice shall be irrevocable. All Securities with respect to which the interest rate (or the spread or spread multiplier used to calculate such interest rate, if applicable) is reset on an Optional Reset Date, and with respect to which the Holders of such Securities have not tendered such Securities for repayment (or have validly revoked any such tender) pursuant to the next succeeding paragraph, will bear such higher interest rate (or such higher spread or spread multiplier, if applicable).

The Holder of any such Security will have the option to elect repayment by the Company of the principal of such Security on each Optional Reset Date at a price equal to the principal amount thereof plus interest accrued to such Optional Reset Date. In order to obtain repayment on an Optional Reset Date, the Holder must follow the procedures set forth in Article Thirteen for repayment at the option of Holders except that the period for delivery or notification

 

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to the Trustee shall be at least 25 but not more than 35 days prior to such Optional Reset Date and except that, if the Holder has tendered any Security for repayment pursuant to the Reset Notice, the Holder may, by written notice to the Trustee, revoke such tender or repayment until the close of business on the tenth day before such Optional Reset Date.

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section and Section 305, each Security delivered under this Indenture upon registration of transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, which were carried by such other Security.

SECTION 308. Optional Extension of Maturity. The provisions of this Section 308 may be made applicable to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301 (with such modifications, additions or substitutions as may be specified pursuant to such Section 301). The Maturity of any Security of such series may be extended at the option of the Company for the period or periods specified on the face of such Security (each an “Extension Period”) up to but not beyond the Stated Maturity set forth on the face of such Security. The Company may exercise such option with respect to any Security by notifying the Trustee of such exercise at least 50 but not more than 60 days prior to the Maturity of such Security in effect prior to the exercise of such option. If the Company exercises such option, the Trustee shall transmit, in the manner provided for in Section 106, to the Holder of such Security not later than 40 days prior to the Maturity a notice (the “Extension Notice”) indicating (i) the election of the Company to extend the Maturity, (ii) the new Maturity, (iii) the interest rate, if any, applicable to the Extension Period and (iv) the provisions, if any, for redemption during such Extension Period. Upon the Trustee’s transmittal of the Extension Notice, the Maturity of such Security shall be extended automatically and, except as modified by the Extension Notice and as described in the next paragraph, such Security will have the same terms as prior to the transmittal of such Extension Notice.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, not later than 20 days before the Maturity of such Security, the Company may, at its option, revoke the interest rate provided for in the Extension Notice and establish a higher interest rate for the Extension Period by causing the Trustee to transmit, in the manner provided for in Section 106, notice of such higher interest rate (or such higher spread or spread multiplier, if applicable) to the Holder of such Security. Such notice shall be irrevocable. All Securities with respect to which the Maturity is extended will bear such higher interest rate.

If the Company extends the Maturity of any Security, the Holder will have the option to elect repayment of such Security by the Company at Maturity at a price equal to the principal amount thereof, plus interest accrued to such date. In order to obtain repayment at Maturity once the Company has extended the Maturity thereof, the Holder must follow the procedures set forth in Article Thirteen for repayment at the option of Holders, except that the period for delivery or notification to the Trustee shall be at least 25 but not more than 35 days prior to the Maturity and except that, if the Holder has tendered any Security for repayment pursuant to an Extension Notice, the Holder may by written notice to the Trustee revoke such tender for repayment until the close of business on the tenth day before the Maturity.

 

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SECTION 309. Persons Deemed Owners. Prior to due presentment of a Registered Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Registered Securit is registered as the absolute owner of such Registered Security for the purpose of receiving payment of principal of (and premium, if any) and (subject to Sections 305 and 307) interest, if any, on such Registered Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, whether or not such Registered Security be overdue, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

Title to any Bearer Security and any coupons appertaining thereto shall pass by delivery. The Company, the Trustee and any agent of the Company or the Trustee may treat the bearer of any Bearer Security and the bearer of any coupon as the absolute owner of such Bearer Security or coupon for the purpose of receiving payment thereof or on account thereof and for all other purposes whatsoever, whether or not such Bearer Security or coupons be overdue, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

None of the Company, the Trustee, any Paying Agent or the Security Registrar shall have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests of a Security in global form or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to such beneficial ownership interests. The Company, the Trustee and the Securities Registrar shall be entitled to deal with any depositary (including any Depositary or Common Depositary), and any nominee thereof, that is the Holder of any such global Security for all purposes of this Indenture relating to such global Security (including the payment of principal, premium, if any, and interest and Additional Amounts, if any, the giving of instructions or directions by or to the owner or holder of a beneficial ownership interest in such global Security) as the sole Holder of such global Security and shall have no obligations to the beneficial owners thereof. None of the Company, the Trustee, any Paying Agent or the Security Registrar shall have any responsibility or liability for any acts or omissions of any such depositary with respect to such global Security, for the records of any such depositary, including records in respect of beneficial ownership interests in respect of any such global Security, for any transactions between such depositary and any participant in such depositary or between or among any such depositary, any such participant and/or any holder or owner of a beneficial interest in such global Security or for any transfers of beneficial interests in any such global Security.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to any global Security, nothing herein shall prevent the Company, the Trustee, or any agent of the Company or the Trustee, from giving effect to any written certification, proxy or other authorization furnished by any depositary (including any Depositary or Common Depositary), as a Holder, with respect to such global Security or impair, as between such depositary and owners of beneficial interests in such global Security, the operation of customary practices governing the exercise of the rights of such depositary (or its nominee) as Holder of such global Security.

 

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SECTION 310. Cancellation. All Securities and coupons surrendered for payment, redemption, repayment at the option of the Holder, registration of transfer or exchange or for credit against any current or future sinking fund payment shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee. All Securities and coupons so delivered to the Trustee shall be promptly cancelled by it. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold, and all Securities so delivered shall be promptly cancelled by the Trustee. If the Company shall so acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture. All cancelled Securities and coupons held by the Trustee shall be disposed of by the Trustee in accordance with its customary procedures and, if requested by the Company in writing, the Trustee shall provide certification of their disposal to the Company, unless by Company Order the Company shall timely direct that cancelled Securities be returned to it.

SECTION 311. Computation of Interest. Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301 with respect to Securities of any series, interest, if any, on the Securities of each series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

SECTION 312. Currency and Manner of Payments in Respect of Securities.

(a) Unless otherwise specified with respect to any series of Securities pursuant to Section 301, with respect to Registered Securities of any series not permitting the election provided for in paragraph (b) below or the Holders of which have not made the election provided for in paragraph (b) below, and with respect to Bearer Securities of any series, except as provided in paragraph (d) below, payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on any Registered Security or Bearer Security of such series will be made in the Currency in which such Registered Security or Bearer Security, as the case may be, is payable. The provisions of this Section 312 may be modified or superseded with respect to any Securities pursuant to Section 301.

(b) It may be provided pursuant to Section 301 with respect to Registered Securities of any series that Holders shall have the option, subject to paragraphs (d) and (e) below, to receive payments of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on such Registered Securities in any of the Currencies which may be designated for such election by delivering to the Trustee a written election with signature guarantees and in the applicable form established pursuant to Section 301, not later than the close of business on the Election Date immediately preceding the applicable payment date. If a Holder so elects to receive such payments in any such Currency, such election will remain in effect for such Holder or any transferee of such Holder until changed by such Holder or such transferee by written notice to the Trustee (but any such change must be made not later than the close of business on the Election Date immediately preceding the next payment date to be effective for the payment to be made on such payment date and no such change of election may be made with respect to payments to be made on any Registered Security of such series with respect to which an Event of Default has occurred

 

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or with respect to which the Company has deposited funds pursuant to Article Four or Fourteen or with respect to which a notice of redemption has been given by the Company or a notice of option to elect repayment has been sent by such Holder or such transferee). Any Holder of any such Registered Security who shall not have delivered any such election to the Trustee not later than the close of business on the applicable Election Date will be paid the amount due on the applicable payment date in the relevant Currency as provided in Section 312(a). The Trustee shall notify the Exchange Rate Agent as soon as practicable after the Election Date of the aggregate principal amount of Registered Securities for which Holders have made such written election.

(c) Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, if the election referred to in paragraph (b) above has been provided for pursuant to Section 301, then, unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, not later than the fourth Business Day after the Election Date for each payment date for Registered Securities of any series, the Exchange Rate Agent will deliver to the Company a written notice specifying the Currency in which Registered Securities of such series are payable, the respective aggregate amounts of principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on the Registered Securities to be paid on such payment date and the amounts in such Currency so payable in respect of the Registered Securities as to which the Holders of Registered Securities of such series shall have elected to be paid in another Currency as provided in paragraph (b) above. If the election referred to in paragraph (b) above has been provided for pursuant to Section 301 and if at least one Holder has made such election, then, unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, on the second Business Day preceding such payment date the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Exchange Rate Officer’s Certificate in respect of the Dollar or Foreign Currency payments to be made on such payment date. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, the Dollar or Foreign Currency amount receivable by Holders of Registered Securities who have elected payment in a Currency as provided in paragraph (b) above shall be determined by the Company on the basis of the applicable Market Exchange Rate in effect on the third Business Day (the “Valuation Date”) immediately preceding each payment date, and such determination shall be conclusive and binding for all purposes, absent manifest error.

(d) If a Conversion Event occurs with respect to a Foreign Currency in which any of the Securities are denominated or payable other than pursuant to an election provided for pursuant to paragraph (b) above, then with respect to each date for the payment of principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on the applicable Securities denominated or payable in such Foreign Currency occurring after the last date on which such Foreign Currency was used (the “Conversion Date”), the Dollar shall be the Currency of payment for use on each such payment date. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, the Dollar amount to be paid by the Company to the Trustee and by the Trustee or any Paying Agent to the Holders of such Securities with respect to such payment date shall be, in the case of a Foreign Currency other than a currency unit, the Dollar Equivalent of the Foreign Currency or, in the case of a currency unit, the Dollar Equivalent of the Currency Unit, in each case as determined by the Exchange Rate Agent in the manner provided in paragraph (f) or (g) below.

 

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(e) Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, if the Holder of a Registered Security denominated in any Currency shall have elected to be paid in another Currency as provided in paragraph (b) above, and a Conversion Event occurs with respect to such elected Currency, such Holder shall receive payment in the Currency in which payment would have been made in the absence of such election; and if a Conversion Event occurs with respect to the Currency in which payment would have been made in the absence of such election, such Holder shall receive payment in Dollars as provided in paragraph (d) above.

(f) The “Dollar Equivalent of the Foreign Currency” shall be determined by the Exchange Rate Agent and shall be obtained for each subsequent payment date by converting the specified Foreign Currency into Dollars at the Market Exchange Rate on the Conversion Date.

(g) The “Dollar Equivalent of the Currency Unit” shall be determined by the Exchange Rate Agent and subject to the provisions of paragraph (h) below shall be the sum of each amount obtained by converting the Specified Amount of each Component Currency into Dollars at the Market Exchange Rate for such Component Currency on the Valuation Date with respect to each payment.

(h) For purposes of this Section 312 the following terms shall have the following meanings:

A “Component Currency” shall mean any Currency which, on the Conversion Date, was a component currency of the relevant currency unit.

A “Specified Amount” of a Component Currency shall mean the number of units of such Component Currency or fractions thereof which were represented in the relevant currency unit on the Conversion Date. If after the Conversion Date the official unit of any Component Currency is altered by way of combination or subdivision, the Specified Amount of such Component Currency shall be divided or multiplied in the same proportion. If after the Conversion Date two or more Component Currencies are consolidated into a single currency, the respective Specified Amounts of such Component Currencies shall be replaced by an amount in such single Currency equal to the sum of the respective Specified Amounts of such consolidated Component Currencies expressed in such single Currency, and such amount shall thereafter be a Specified Amount and such single Currency shall thereafter be a Component Currency. If after the Conversion Date any Component Currency shall be divided into two or more currencies, the Specified Amount of such Component Currency shall be replaced by amounts of such two or more currencies, having an aggregate Dollar Equivalent value at the Market Exchange Rate on the date of such replacement equal to the Dollar Equivalent value of the Specified Amount of such former Component Currency at the Market Exchange Rate immediately before such division and such amounts shall thereafter be Specified Amounts and such currencies shall thereafter be Component Currencies. If, after the Conversion Date of the relevant currency unit, a Conversion Event (other than any event referred to above in this definition of “Specified Amount”) occurs with respect to any Component Currency of such currency unit and is continuing on the applicable Valuation Date, the Specified Amount of such Component Currency shall, for purposes of calculating the Dollar Equivalent of the Currency Unit, be converted into Dollars at the Market Exchange Rate in effect on the Conversion Date of such Component Currency.

 

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“Election Date” shall mean the date for any series of Registered Securities as specified pursuant to clause (13) of Section 301 by which the written election referred to in paragraph (b) above may be made.

All decisions and determinations of the Exchange Rate Agent regarding the Dollar Equivalent of the Foreign Currency, the Dollar Equivalent of the Currency Unit, the Market Exchange Rate and changes in the Specified Amounts as specified above shall be in its sole discretion and shall, in the absence of manifest error, be conclusive for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company, the Trustee and all Holders of such Securities denominated or payable in the relevant Currency. The Exchange Rate Agent shall promptly give written notice to the Company and the Trustee of any such decision or determination.

In the event that the Company determines in good faith that a Conversion Event has occurred with respect to a Foreign Currency, the Company will immediately give written notice thereof to the Trustee and to the Exchange Rate Agent (and the Trustee will promptly thereafter give notice in the manner provided for in Section 106 to the affected Holders) specifying the Conversion Date. In the event the Company so determines that a Conversion Event has occurred with respect to any Foreign Currency unit in which Securities are denominated or payable, the Company will immediately give written notice thereof to the Trustee and to the Exchange Rate Agent (and the Trustee will promptly thereafter give notice in the manner provided for in Section 106 to the affected Holders) specifying the Conversion Date and the Specified Amount of each Component Currency on the Conversion Date. In the event the Company determines in good faith that any subsequent change in any Component Currency as set forth in the definition of Specified Amount above has occurred, the Company will similarly give written notice to the Trustee and the Exchange Rate Agent. The Trustee shall be fully justified and protected in conclusively relying and acting upon information received by it from the Company and the Exchange Rate Agent and shall not otherwise have any duty or obligation to determine the accuracy or validity of such information independent of the Company or the Exchange Rate Agent.

SECTION 313. Appointment and Resignation of Successor Exchange Rate Agent. (a) Unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, if and so long as the Securities of any series (i) are denominated in a Foreign Currency or (ii) may be payable in a Foreign Currency, or so long as it is required under any other provision of this Indenture, then the Company will maintain with respect to each such series of Securities, or as so required, at least one Exchange Rate Agent. The Company will cause the Exchange Rate Agent to make the necessary foreign exchange determinations at the time and in the manner specified pursuant to Section 301 for the purpose of determining the applicable rate of exchange and, if applicable, for the purpose of converting the denominated Currency into the applicable payment Currency for the payment of principal (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, pursuant to Section 312.

(b) No resignation of the Exchange Rate Agent and no appointment of a successor Exchange Rate Agent pursuant to this Section shall become effective until the acceptance of appointment by the successor Exchange Rate Agent as evidenced by a written instrument delivered to the Company and the Trustee.

 

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(c) If the Exchange Rate Agent shall resign, be removed or become incapable of acting, or if a vacancy shall occur in the office of the Exchange Rate Agent for any cause with respect to the Securities of one or more series, the Company, by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, shall promptly appoint a successor Exchange Rate Agent or Exchange Rate Agents with respect to the Securities of that or those series (it being understood that any such successor Exchange Rate Agent may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more or all of such series and that, unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, at any time there shall only be one Exchange Rate Agent with respect to the Securities of any particular series that are originally issued by the Company on the same date and that are initially denominated and/or payable in the same Currency).

ARTICLE 4

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

SECTION 401. Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. This Indenture shall upon Company Request cease to be of further effect with respect to any series of Securities specified in such Company Request (except as to any surviving rights of registration of transfer or exchange of Securities of such series expressly provided for herein or pursuant hereto, and any right to receive Additional Amounts, as contemplated by [Article 10]) and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture as to such series when

(a) either

(A) all Securities of such series theretofore authenticated and delivered and all coupons, if any, appertaining thereto (other than (i) coupons appertaining to Bearer Securities surrendered for exchange for Registered Securities and maturing after such exchange, whose surrender is not required or has been waived as provided in Section 305, (ii) Securities and coupons of such series which have been destroyed, lost or stolen and which have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 306, (iii) coupons appertaining to Securities called for redemption and maturing after the relevant Redemption Date, whose surrender has been waived as provided in Section 1106, and (iv) Securities and coupons of such series for whose payment money has theretofore been deposited in trust with the Trustee or any Paying Agent or segregated and held in trust by the Company and thereafter repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in [Article 10]) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

(B) all Securities of such series and, in the case of (i) or (ii) below, any coupons appertaining thereto not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation

 

  (i)

have become due and payable, or

 

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  (ii)

will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

 

  (iii)

if redeemable at the option of the Company, are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company,

and the Company, in the case of (i), (ii) or (iii) above, has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for such purpose an amount, in the Currency in which the Securities of such series are payable, sufficient to pay and discharge the entire indebtedness on such Securities and such coupons not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable) or to the Stated Maturity or Redemption Date, as the case may be;

(b) the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder or under the Securities; and

(c) the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture as to such series have been complied with.

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 606 and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to subclause (B) of clause (a) of this Section, the obligations of the Trustee under Section 402 and [Article 10], and the penultimate paragraph of Section 1405 shall survive.

SECTION 402. Application of Trust Money. All money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 401 shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities, the coupons and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) to the Persons entitled thereto, of the principal (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, for whose payment such money has been deposited with the Trustee; but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. Money so held in trust is subject to the Trustee’s rights under Section 606.

ARTICLE 5

REMEDIES

SECTION 501. Events of Default. “Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any series, means any one of the following events (whatever the reason for such Event of Default and whether it shall be voluntary or involuntary or be effected by operation of law or pursuant to any judgment, decree or order of any court or any order, rule or regulation of any administrative or governmental body):

 

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(1) [default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that series, or any related coupon, when such interest or coupon becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days; or

(2) default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any, on) any Security of that series at its Maturity; or

(3) default in the deposit of any principal payment into the sinking fund, when and as due by the terms of any Security of that series and Article Twelve; or

(4) default in the performance, or breach, of any covenant or agreement of the Company in this Indenture which affects or is applicable to the Securities of that series (other than a default in the performance or breach of a covenant or agreement that is elsewhere in this Section specifically dealt with or which has expressly been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of other series of Securities), and continuance of such default or breach for a period of after receipt of notice given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of all Outstanding Securities of that series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder;or

(5) the entry by a court having jurisdiction in the premises of (A) a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary case or proceeding under Bankruptcy Law or (B) a decree or order adjudging the Company a bankrupt or insolvent, or approving as properly filed a petition seeking reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition of or in respect of the Company under any applicable federal or state law, or appointing a custodian, receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator or other similar official of the Company or of any substantial part of their property, or ordering the winding up or liquidation of their affairs, and the continuance of any such decree or order for relief or any such other decree or order unstayed and in effect for a period of 90 consecutive days; or

(6) the commencement by the Company of a voluntary case or proceeding under Bankruptcy Law or of any other case or proceeding to be adjudicated a bankrupt or insolvent, or the consent by them to the entry of a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company is an involuntary case or proceeding under Bankruptcy Law or to the commencement of any bankruptcy or insolvency case or proceeding against them, or the filing by them of a petition or answer or consent seeking reorganization or relief under any applicable Federal or State law, or the consent by them to the filing of such petition or to the appointment of or taking possession by a custodian, receiver, liquidator, assignee, trustee, sequestrator or similar official of the Company or of any substantial part of their property, or the making by them of an assignment for the benefit of creditors, or the admission by them in writing of their inability to pay their debts generally as they become due; or

(7) there occurs any other Event of Default provided pursuant to Sections 301 or 901 with respect to Securities of that series.]

 

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SECTION 502. [RESERVED].

ARTICLE 6

THE TRUSTEE

SECTION 601. Notice of Defaults. Within 90 days after the occurrence of any Default hereunder with respect to the Securities of any series, the Trustee shall transmit, in the manner and to the extent provided in TIA Section 313(c), notice of such default hereunder known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, unless such Default shall have been cured or waived; provided, however, that, except in the case of a Default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on any Security of such series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment with respect to Securities of such series, the Trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if and so long as the board of directors, the executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or Responsible Officers of the Trustee in good faith determine that the withholding of such notice is in the best interest of the Holders of Securities of such series and any related coupons; and, provided further, that in the case of any default or breach of the character specified in Section 501[_] with respect to Securities and coupons of such series, no such notice to Holders shall be given until at least 30 days after the occurrence thereof.

SECTION 602. Certain Duties, Responsibilities and Rights of Trustee. Subject to the provisions of TIA Sections 315(a) through 315(d):

(1) except during the continuance of an Event of Default,

(a) the Trustee undertakes to perform such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

(b) in the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture;

(2) if any Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any series, the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs;

(3) the Trustee may not be relieved from liabilities for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

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(a) this subparagraph (3) does not limit the effect of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph or the penultimate paragraph of this Section 602;

(b) the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts; and

(c) the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the affected series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture;

(4) the Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be fully protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

(5) any request or direction of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Company Request or Company Order and any resolution of the Board of Directors of the Company may be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution of the Company;

(6) whenever in the administration of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking, suffering or omitting any action hereunder, the Trustee (unless other evidence be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of bad faith on its part, conclusively rely upon an Officers’ Certificate;

(7) the Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection and the advice or written opinion of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

(8) the Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities of any series or any related coupons pursuant to this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction;

(9) the Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit, and, if the Trustee shall determine to make such further inquiry or investigation, it shall be entitled to examine the books, records and premises of the Company personally or by agent or attorney;

 

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(10) the Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents, attorneys, custodians, or nominees and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent, attorney, custodian, or nominee appointed with due care by it hereunder;

(11) the Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

(12) in the event that the Trustee is also acting as Paying Agent, Security Registrar or in any other capacity hereunder, the rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits afforded to the Trustee pursuant to this Article Six, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, shall also be afforded to the Trustee in its capacity as such Paying Agent, Security Registrar or in such other capacity and each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder;

(13) other than in the case of an Event of Default described under clauses [_____] of Section 501, the Trustee shall not be deemed to know or be charged with knowledge of any Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of any series for which it is acting as Trustee unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee shall have received written notice thereof at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee from the Company or a Holder of such Securities and such notice references this Indenture and such Securities;

(14) the Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers and duties hereunder; and

(15) in no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, indirect, punitive or consequential loss or damage.

The Trustee shall not be required to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties hereunder, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it.

Whether or not therein expressly so provided, every provision of this Indenture relating to the conduct or affecting the liability of or affording protection to the Trustee shall be subject to the provisions of this Section 602.

SECTION 603. Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance of Securities. The recitals contained herein and in the Securities, except for the Trustee’s certificates of authentication, and in any coupons shall be taken as the statements of the Company and neither the Trustee nor any Authenticating Agent assumes any responsibility for their correctness. The

 

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Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities or coupons, except that the Trustee represents that it is duly authorized to execute and deliver this Indenture, authenticate the Securities and perform its obligations hereunder and that the statements made by it in a Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 supplied to the Company are true and accurate, subject to the qualifications set forth therein. Neither the Trustee nor any Authenticating Agent shall be accountable for the use or application by the Company of Securities or the proceeds thereof.

SECTION 604. May Hold Securities. The Trustee, any Authenticating Agent, any Paying Agent, any Security Registrar or any other agent of the Company or of the Trustee, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and coupons and, subject to TIA Sections 310(b) and 311, may otherwise deal with the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, Authenticating Agent, Paying Agent, Security Registrar or such other agent.

SECTION 605. Money Held in Trust. Money held by the Trustee in trust hereunder need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any money received by it hereunder except as otherwise agreed in writing with the Company for the investment thereof.

SECTION 606. Compensation and Reimbursement. The Company agrees:

(1) to pay to the Trustee from time to time such compensation as shall be agreed in writing between the Company and the Trustee for all services rendered by it hereunder (which compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust);

(2) except as otherwise expressly provided herein, to reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its agents and counsel), except any such expense, disbursement or advance as may be attributable to its gross negligence or willful misconduct; and

(3) to indemnify the Trustee and any predecessor trustee and its and their officers, directors, employees, and agents for, and to hold it or them harmless against, any loss, liability or expense incurred without gross negligence or willful misconduct on its or their part, arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of the trust or trusts hereunder, including the costs and expenses (including reasonable fees and expenses of counsel) of defending itself or themselves against any claim or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its or their powers or duties hereunder.

The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate the Trustee, to pay or reimburse the Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances and to indemnify and hold harmless the Trustee shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder and shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the resignation or removal of the Trustee and the

 

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termination of this Indenture for any reason. As security for the performance of such obligations of the Company, the Trustee shall have a claim and lien prior to the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the payment of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on particular Securities or any coupons.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services in connection with an Event of Default specified in Section 501[____]), the expenses (including reasonable charges and expense of its counsel) of and the compensation for such services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any applicable U.S. federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency or other similar law.

The provisions of this Section shall survive the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the termination of this Indenture for any reason and the earlier resignation or removal of the Trustee.

SECTION 607. Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility; Conflicting Interests; Disqualification. There shall be at all times a Trustee hereunder which shall be eligible to act as Trustee under TIA Section 310(a)(1) and shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of U.S. federal, state, territorial or District of Columbia supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. If at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect hereinafter specified in this Article. If the Trustee shall have or acquire any conflicting interest within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act, it shall either eliminate such conflicting interest or resign to the extent, in the manner and with the effect, and subject to the conditions, provided in the Trust Indenture Act and this Indenture. For purposes of Section 310(b)(1) of the Trust Indenture Act and to the extent permitted thereby, the Trustee, in its capacity as trustee in respect of the Securities of any series, shall not be deemed to have a conflicting interest arising from its capacity as trustee in respect of the Securities of any other series. Nothing contained herein shall prevent the Trustee from filing the application provided for in the second to last sentence of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

SECTION 608. Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor. No resignation or removal of the Trustee and no appointment of a successor Trustee pursuant to this Article shall become effective until the acceptance of appointment by the successor Trustee in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 609 and any and all amounts then due and owing to the Trustee hereunder have been paid in full.

(a) The Trustee may resign at any time with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company. If the instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee required by Section 609 shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition, at the expense of the Company, any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

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(b) The Trustee may be removed at any time with respect to the Securities of any series by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series, delivered to the Trustee and to the Company. If the instrument of acceptance by a successor Trustee required by Section 609 shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 60 days after the giving of such notice of removal, the Trustee being removed may petition, at the expense of the Company, any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

(c) If at any time:

(1) the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of TIA Section 310(b) after written request therefor by the Company or any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security for at least six months, or

(2) the Trustee shall cease to be eligible under Section 607 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security for at least six months, or

(3) the Trustee shall become incapable of acting or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation,

then, in any such case, (i) the Company, by a Board Resolution, may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities, or (ii) subject to TIA Section 315(e), any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security for at least six months may, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee with respect to all Securities and the appointment of a successor Trustee or Trustees.

(d) If the Trustee shall resign, be removed or become incapable of acting, or if a vacancy shall occur in the office of Trustee for any cause, with respect to the Securities of one or more series, the Company, by a Board Resolution, shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee or Trustees with respect to the Securities of that or those series (it being understood that any such successor Trustee may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more or all of such series and that at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series). If, within one year after such resignation, removal or incapability, or the occurrence of such vacancy, a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall be appointed by Act of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series delivered to the Company and the retiring Trustee, the successor Trustee so appointed shall, forthwith upon its acceptance of such appointment, become the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and to that extent supersede the successor Trustee appointed by the Company. If no successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series shall have been so appointed by the Company or the Holders and accepted appointment in the manner hereinafter provided, any Holder who has been a bona fide Holder of a Security of such series for at least six months may, on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

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(e) The Company shall give written notice of each resignation and each removal of the Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series and each appointment of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any series to the Holders of Securities of such series in the manner provided for in Section 106. Each notice shall include the name of the successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of such series and the address of its Corporate Trust Office.

SECTION 609. Acceptance of Appointment by Successor. In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor Trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the written request of the Company or the successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor Trustee all the rights, powers and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder, subject nevertheless to its claim and lien provided for in Section 606.

(a) In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor Trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor Trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates, (2) if the retiring Trustee is not retiring with respect to all Securities, shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust and that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein and each such successor Trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor Trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor Trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder

 

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with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor Trustee relates, subject nevertheless to its claim and lien provided for in Section 606. Whenever there is a successor Trustee with respect to one or more (but less than all) series of securities issued pursuant to this Indenture, the terms “Indenture” and “Securities” shall have the meanings specified in the provisos to the respective definitions of those terms in Section 101 which contemplate such situation.

(b) Upon request of any such successor Trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor Trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

(c) No successor Trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor Trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article. The Trustee shall have no liability or responsibility for the action or inaction of any successor Trustee.

SECTION 610. Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business. Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided such corporation shall be otherwise qualified and eligible under this Article, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto. In case any Securities or coupons shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities or coupons so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities or coupons. In case any of the Securities shall not have been authenticated by such predecessor Trustee, any successor Trustee may authenticate and deliver such Securities or coupons either in the name of any predecessor hereunder or in the name of the successor Trustee. In all such cases such certificates shall have the full force and effect which this Indenture provides for the certificate of authentication of the Trustee; provided, however, that the right to adopt the certificate of authentication of any predecessor Trustee or to authenticate Securities in the name of any predecessor Trustee shall apply only to its successor or successors by merger, conversion or consolidation.

SECTION 611. Appointment of Authenticating Agent. At any time when any of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Trustee may appoint an Authenticating Agent or Agents with respect to one or more series of Securities which shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series and the Trustee shall give written notice of such appointment to all Holders of Securities of the series with respect to which such Authenticating Agent will serve, in the manner provided for in Section 106. Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. Any such appointment shall be evidenced by an instrument in writing signed by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, and a copy of such instrument shall be promptly furnished to the Company. Wherever reference is made in this Indenture to the authentication and delivery of Securities by the Trustee or the Trustee’s

 

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certificate of authentication, such reference shall be deemed to include authentication and delivery on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent and a certificate of authentication executed on behalf of the Trustee by an Authenticating Agent. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, authorized under such laws to act as Authenticating Agent, having a combined capital and surplus of not less than $50,000,000 and subject to supervision or examination by U.S. federal or state authority. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of said supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. If at any time an Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this Section.

Any corporation into which an Authenticating Agent may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which such Authenticating Agent shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all the corporate agency or corporate trust business of an Authenticating Agent, shall continue to be an Authenticating Agent, provided such corporation shall be otherwise eligible under this Section, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of the Trustee or the Authenticating Agent.

An Authenticating Agent may resign at any time by giving written notice thereof to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time terminate the agency of an Authenticating Agent by giving written notice thereof to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon receiving such a notice of resignation or upon such a termination, or in case at any time such Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee may appoint a successor Authenticating Agent which shall be acceptable to the Company and shall give written notice of such appointment to all Holders of Securities of the series with respect to which such Authenticating Agent will serve, in the manner provided for in Section 106. Any successor Authenticating Agent upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder, with like effect as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent. No successor Authenticating Agent shall be appointed unless eligible under the provisions of this Section. The Trustee shall have no liability or responsibility for the action or inaction of any Authenticating Agent (that is not the Trustee).

The Company agrees to pay to each Authenticating Agent from time to time reasonable compensation for its services under this Section.

If an appointment with respect to one or more series is made pursuant to this Section, the Securities of such series may have endorsed thereon, in addition to the Trustee’s certificate of authentication, an alternate certificate of authentication in the following form:

Dated: ____________________

This is one of the Securities of the series designated therein referred to in the within-mentioned Indenture.

 

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[Trustee],

as Trustee

By:  

 

as Authenticating Agent
By:  

 

Authorized Signatory

ARTICLE 7

HOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY TRUSTEE AND COMPANY

SECTION 701. Disclosure of Names and Addresses of Holders. Every Holder of Securities or coupons, by receiving and holding the same, agrees with the Company and the Trustee that neither of the Company, or the Trustee or any agent of either of them shall be held accountable by reason of the disclosure of any such information as to the names and addresses of the Holders in accordance with TIA Section 312, regardless of the source from which such information was derived, and that the Trustee shall not be held accountable by reason of mailing any material pursuant to a request made under TIA Section 312(b).

SECTION 702. Reports by Trustee. Within 60 days after May 15 of each year commencing with the first May 15 after the first issuance of Securities pursuant to this Indenture, the Trustee shall transmit to the Holders of Securities, in the manner and to the extent provided in TIA Section 313(c), a brief report dated as of such May 15 if required by TIA Section 313(a). The Company will promptly notify the Trustee in writing when any series of Securities are listed on any stock exchange and of any delisting thereof.

A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Holders, be filed by the Trustee with each stock exchange if any, upon which the Securities are listed and with the Company.

SECTION 703. Reports by Company. The Company shall:

(1) Unless available on EDGAR, file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company, as the case may be, has filed the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) which the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is no longer required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such Sections, then it shall file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports which may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations;

 

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(2) file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants of this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations; and

(3) transmit to all Holders, in the manner and to the extent provided in TIA Section 313(c), within 30 days after the filing thereof with the Trustee, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Section as may be required by rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.

Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee, which if pursuant to an EDGAR filing, the Trustee is not required to confirm, is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of the filing of such a report, its timeliness or any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including compliance by the Company with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to conclusively rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates).

ARTICLE 8

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE

[RESERVED]

ARTICLE 9

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

SECTION 901. Supplemental Indentures Without Consent of Holders. Without the consent of any Holders, the Company when authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and the Trustee, at any time and from time to time, may enter into one or more indentures supplemental hereto, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, for any of the following purposes:

(1) to evidence the succession of another Person to the Company and the assumption by any such successor of the covenants of the Company contained herein and in the Securities and any related coupons in accordance with Article Eight; or

(2) to add to the covenants of the Company for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities and any related coupons (and if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are being included solely for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company; or

 

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(3) to add any additional Events of Default for the benefit of the Holders of all or any series of Securities and any related coupons (and if such Events of Default are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such Events of Default are being included solely for the benefit of such series); or

(4) to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture to provide that Bearer Securities may be registrable as to principal, to change or eliminate any restrictions on the payment of principal of or any premium or interest on Bearer Securities, to permit Bearer Securities to be issued in exchange for Registered Securities, to permit Bearer Securities to be issued in exchange for Bearer Securities of other authorized denominations or to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in uncertificated form, provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of any series or any related coupons in any material respect; or

(5) to change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture; provided that any such change or elimination shall become effective only when there is no Security Outstanding of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture which is entitled to the benefit of any such provision; or

(6) to secure the Securities pursuant to the requirements of [Article 10] or otherwise; or

(7) to establish the form or terms of Securities of any series and any related coupons as permitted by Sections 201 and 301, including the provisions and procedures relating to Securities convertible into or exchangeable for any securities of any Person (including the Company); or

(8) to comply with requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission in order to maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act; or

(9) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 609(b); or

(10) to make any provisions with respect to the optional conversion rights of holders, including providing for the conversion of Securities into any other security or securities of the Company, provided that such provisions are not adverse to the interests of the holders of any debt securities then outstanding; or

(11) to cure any ambiguity, to correct or supplement any provision herein which may be inconsistent with any other provision herein, or to make any other provisions with respect to matters or questions arising under this Indenture, provided such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of any series and any related coupons in any material respect; or

 

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(12) to add any guarantee of one or more series of the Securities; or

(13) to supplement any of the provisions of this Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the defeasance and discharge of any series of Securities pursuant to Sections 401, 1402 and 1403; provided that any such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the Holders of Securities of such series and any related coupons or any other series of Securities in any material respect.

SECTION 902. Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Holders. With the consent of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of all Outstanding Securities affected by such supplemental indenture, by Act of said Holders delivered to the Company and the Trustee and the Company when authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture which affect such Securities or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Holders of such Securities under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby,

(1) change the Stated Maturity of the principal of (or premium, if any) or any installment of principal of or interest on any Security of such series; or the terms of any sinking fund with respect to any Security; or reduce the principal amount thereof (or premium, if any) or the rate of interest (or manner of calculating the rate of interest), if any, thereon, or any premium payable upon the redemption thereof, or repayment thereof at the option of the Holder, or the date(s) or period(s) for any redemption or repayment thereof, or change any obligation of the Company to pay Additional Amounts contemplated by [Article 10] (except as contemplated by [Article 8] and permitted by Section 901(1)), or reduce the amount of the principal of an Original Issue Discount Security of such series that would be due and payable upon an acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 502, or upon the redemption thereof, or the amount thereof provable in bankruptcy pursuant to Section 502, or adversely affect any right of repayment at the option of any Holder of any Security of such series, or change any Place of Payment where, or the Currency in which, any Security of such series or any premium or interest thereon is payable; or impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after the Stated Maturity thereof (or, in the case of redemption or repayment at the option of the Holder, on or after the Redemption Date or Repayment Date, as the case may be), or modify the provisions of this Indenture with respect to the mandatory redemption of Securities or repayment of the Securities at the option of the Holder in a manner adverse to any Holder of any Securities or any coupons appertaining thereto, adversely affect any right to convert or exchange any Security as may be provided pursuant to Section 301 herein, or

(2) reduce the percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series the consent of whose Holders is required for any such supplemental indenture or for any waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture which affect such series or certain defaults applicable to such series hereunder and their consequences provided for in this Indenture, or reduce the requirements of Section 1504 for quorum or voting with respect to Securities of such series, or

 

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(3) modify any of the provisions of this Section or Section 513, except to increase any such percentage or to provide that certain other provisions of this Indenture which affect such series cannot be modified or waived without the consent of the Holder of each Outstanding Security affected thereby.

It shall not be necessary for any Act of Holders under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such Act shall approve the substance thereof.

SECTION 903. Execution of Supplemental Indentures. In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall receive, and shall be fully protected in conclusively relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the execution of such supplemental indenture is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, enter into any such supplemental indenture which affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

SECTION 904. Effect of Supplemental Indentures. Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture under this Article, this Indenture shall be modified in accordance therewith, and such supplemental indenture shall form a part of this Indenture for all purposes; and every Holder of Securities theretofore or thereafter authenticated and delivered hereunder and of any coupon appertaining thereto shall be bound thereby.

SECTION 905. Conformity with Trust Indenture Act. Every supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article shall conform to the requirements of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect.

SECTION 906. Reference in Securities to Supplemental Indentures. Securities of any series authenticated and delivered after the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to this Article may, and shall if required by the Trustee, bear a notation in form approved by the Trustee as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of any series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Trustee, the Company to any such supplemental indenture may be prepared and executed by the Company, and authenticated and delivered (which delivery, in the case of Bearer Securities, shall occur only outside the United States) by the Trustee in exchange for Outstanding Securities of such series.

SECTION 907. Notice of Supplemental Indentures. Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of Section 902, the Company shall give written notice thereof to the Holders of each Outstanding Security affected, in the manner provided for in Section 106, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture.

 

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ARTICLE 10

COVENANTS

[RESERVED]

ARTICLE 11

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES

SECTION 1101. Applicability of Article. Securities of any series which are redeemable before their Stated Maturity shall be redeemable in accordance with the terms of such Securities and (except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301 for Securities of any series) in accordance with this Article.

SECTION 1102. Election to Redeem; Notice to Trustee. The election of the Company to redeem any Securities shall be evidenced by or pursuant to a Board Resolution. In case of any redemption at the election of the Company, the Company shall, at least 60 days prior to the Redemption Date fixed by the Company (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee), notify the Trustee in writing of such Redemption Date and of the principal amount of Securities of such series to be redeemed and, in the case of a partial redemption, shall deliver to the Trustee such documentation and records as shall enable the Trustee to select the Securities to be redeemed pursuant to Section 1103. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with such restriction.

SECTION 1103. Selection by Trustee of Securities to Be Redeemed. If less than all the Securities of any series with the same terms are to be redeemed, the particular Securities to be redeemed shall be selected not more than 45 days prior to the Redemption Date by the Trustee, from the Outstanding Securities of such series with the same terms not previously called for redemption, by such method as the Trustee shall deem fair and appropriate, subject to applicable law, and which may provide for the selection for redemption of portions of the principal of Securities of such series; provided, however, that no such partial redemption shall reduce the portion of the principal amount of a Security not redeemed to less than the minimum authorized denomination for Securities of such series established pursuant to Section 301.

The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption and, in the case of any Securities selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed.

For all purposes of this Indenture, unless the context otherwise requires, all provisions relating to the redemption of Securities shall relate, in the case of any Security redeemed or to be redeemed only in part, to the portion of the principal amount of such Security which has been or is to be redeemed.

 

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SECTION 1104. Notice of Redemption. Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301 for Securities of any series, notice of redemption shall be given in the manner provided for in Section 106 not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the Redemption Date, to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed.

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301 for Securities of any series, all notices of redemption shall state:

(1) the Redemption Date,

(2) the Redemption Price (if known) or the formula pursuant to which the Redemption Price is to be determined if the Redemption Price cannot be determined at the time the notice is given, together with the amount of accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date,

(3) if less than all the Outstanding Securities of any series are to be redeemed, the identification (and, in the case of partial redemption, the principal amounts) of the particular Securities to be redeemed,

(4) in case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice which relates to such Security shall state that on and after the Redemption Date, upon surrender of such Security, the Holder will receive, without charge, a new Security or Securities of the same series of like tenor of authorized denominations for the principal amount thereof remaining unredeemed,

(5) that on the Redemption Date, the Redemption Price and accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date payable as provided in Section 1106 will become due and payable upon each such Security, or the portion thereof, to be redeemed and, if applicable, that interest thereon will cease to accrue on and after said date,

(6) the Place or Places of Payment (which in the case of Bearer Securities shall be outside the United States) where such Securities, together in the case of Bearer Securities with all coupons appertaining thereto, if any, maturing on or after the Redemption Date, are to be surrendered for payment of the Redemption Price and accrued interest, if any,

(7) that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case,

(8) that, unless otherwise specified in such notice, Bearer Securities of any series, if any, surrendered for redemption must be accompanied by all coupons maturing subsequent to the Redemption Date or the amount of any such missing coupon or coupons will be deducted from the Redemption Price unless security or indemnity satisfactory to the Company, the Trustee and any Paying Agent is furnished,

(9) if Bearer Securities of any series are to be redeemed and any Registered Securities of such series are not to be redeemed, and if such Bearer Securities may be exchanged for Registered Securities not subject to redemption on such Redemption Date pursuant to Section 305 or otherwise, the last date, as determined by the Company, on which such exchanges may be made,

 

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(10) the CUSIP, ISIN or other similar numbers, if any, assigned to such Securities; provided, however, that such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of CUSIP, ISIN or other similar numbers, in which case none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall have any liability in respect of the use of any CUSIP, ISIN or other similar number or numbers on such notices, and the redemption of such Securities shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers,

(11) the Euroclear or the Clearstream reference numbers of such Security, if any, and

(12) such other matters as the Company shall deem desirable or appropriate.

Notice of redemption of Securities to be redeemed at the election of the Company shall be given by the Company or, at the Company’s written request, by the Trustee in the name and at the expense of the Company.

SECTION 1105. Deposit of Redemption Price. On or prior to 11:00 a.m. (New York City time) on any Redemption Date, the Company shall deposit with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent (or, if the Company is acting as its own Paying Agent, which it may not do in the case of a sinking fund payment under Article Twelve, segregate and hold in trust as provided in [Article 10]) an amount of money in the Currency in which the Securities of such series are payable (except as otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301 for the Securities of such series and except, if applicable, as provided in Sections 312(b), 312(d) and 312(e)) sufficient to pay on the Redemption Date the Redemption Price of, and (except if the Redemption Date shall be an Interest Payment Date) accrued interest, if any, on, all the Securities or portions thereof which are to be redeemed on that date.

SECTION 1106. Securities Payable on Redemption Date. Notice of redemption having been given as aforesaid, the Securities so to be redeemed shall, on the Redemption Date, become due and payable at the Redemption Price therein specified in the Currency in which the Securities of such series are payable (except as otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301 for the Securities of such series and except, if applicable, as provided in Sections 312(b), 312(d) and 312(e)) (together with accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date), and from and after such date (unless the Company shall default in the payment of the Redemption Price and accrued interest, if any) such Securities shall, if the same were interest-bearing, cease to bear interest and the coupons for such interest appertaining to any Bearer Securities so to be redeemed, except to the extent provided below, shall be void. Upon surrender of any such Security for redemption in accordance with said notice, together with all coupons, if any, appertaining thereto maturing after the Redemption Date, such Security shall be paid by the Company at the Redemption Price, together with accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date; provided, however, that installments of interest on Bearer Securities whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to the Redemption Date shall be payable only at an office or agency located outside the United States (except as otherwise provided in [Article 10]) and, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, only upon presentation and surrender of coupons for such interest; and provided further that installments of interest on Registered Securities whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to the Redemption Date shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities, or one or more Predecessor Securities, registered as such at the close of business on the relevant Regular Record Dates according to their terms and the provisions of Section 307.

 

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If any Bearer Security surrendered for redemption shall not be accompanied by all appurtenant coupons maturing after the Redemption Date, such Security may be paid after deducting from the Redemption Price an amount equal to the face amount of all such missing coupons, or the surrender of such missing coupon or coupons may be waived by the Company and the Trustee if there be furnished to them such security or indemnity as they may require to save each of them and any Paying Agent harmless. If thereafter the Holder of such Security shall surrender to the Trustee or any Paying Agent any such missing coupon in respect of which a deduction shall have been made from the Redemption Price, such Holder shall be entitled to receive the amount so deducted; provided, however, that interest represented by coupons shall be payable only at an office or agency located outside the United States (except as otherwise provided in [Article 10]) and, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, only upon presentation and surrender of those coupons.

If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid upon surrender thereof for redemption, the principal (and premium, if any) shall, until paid, bear interest from the Redemption Date at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) set forth in or contemplated by such Security.

SECTION 1107. Securities Redeemed in Part. Any Security which is to be redeemed only in part (pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Article Twelve) shall be surrendered at a Place of Payment therefor (with, if the Company or the Trustee so requires, due endorsement by, or a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee duly executed by, the Holder thereof or such Holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing), and the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to the Holder of such Security without service charge, a new Security or Securities of the same series and of like tenor, of any authorized denomination as requested by such Holder, in aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for the unredeemed portion of the principal of the Security so surrendered.

SECTION 1108. Optional Redemption Due to Changes in Tax Treatment. Each series of Securities may be redeemed at the option of the Company (or their successors) in whole but not in part at any time (except in the case of Securities that have a variable rate of interest, which may be redeemed on any Interest Payment Date) at a Redemption Price equal to the principal amount thereof plus accrued interest to the date fixed for redemption (except in the case of Outstanding Original Issue Discount Securities which may be redeemed at the Redemption Price specified by the terms of such series of Securities) if (i) the Company is or would be required to pay Additional Amounts as a result of any change in or amendment to the laws or any regulations or rulings promulgated thereunder of the United States (or in the case of a successor Person to the Company, of the jurisdiction in which such successor Person is organized or any political subdivision or taxing authority thereof or therein) or (ii) any change in the official application or interpretation of such laws, regulations or rulings, or any change in the official application or interpretation of, or any execution of or amendment to, any treaty or treaties affecting taxation to which the United States (or such other jurisdiction or political subdivision or taxing authority) is a party, which change, execution or amendment becomes effective on or after the date of issuance of such series pursuant to Section 301(23) (or in the case of a successor Person to the Company,

 

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the date on which such successor Person became such). Prior to the giving of notice of redemption of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate, stating that the Company is entitled to effect such redemption and setting forth in reasonable detail a statement of circumstances showing that the conditions precedent to the right of the Company to redeem such Securities pursuant to this Section have been satisfied.

ARTICLE 12

SINKING FUNDS

SECTION 1201. Applicability of Article. Retirements of Securities of any series pursuant to any sinking fund shall be made in accordance with the terms of such Securities and (except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301 for Securities of any series) in accordance with this Article.

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any mandatory sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 1202. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

SECTION 1202. Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities. Subject to Section 1203, in lieu of making all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to any Securities of a series in cash, the Company may at its option (1) deliver to the Trustee Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any previously called for redemption) theretofore purchased or otherwise acquired by the Company, together, in the case of any Bearer Securities of such series, with all unmatured coupons appertaining thereto, and/or (2) receive credit for the principal amount of Securities of such series which have been previously delivered to the Trustee by the Company or for Securities of such series which have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any mandatory sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of the same series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series; provided, however, that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the Redemption Price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such mandatory sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

SECTION 1203. Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund. Not less than 60 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of that series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash in the Currency in which the Securities of such series are payable (except as otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301 for the Securities of such series and except, if applicable, as provided in Sections 312(b), 312(d) and 312(e)) and the portion thereof,

 

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if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering or crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 1202 (which Securities will, if not previously delivered, accompany such certificate) and whether the Company intends to exercise its right to make a permitted optional sinking fund payment with respect to such series. Such certificate shall be irrevocable and upon its delivery the Company shall be obligated to make the cash payment or payments therein referred to, if any, on or before the next succeeding sinking fund payment date. In the case of the failure of the Company to deliver such certificate, the sinking fund payment due on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date for that series shall be paid entirely in cash and shall be sufficient to redeem the principal amount of such Securities subject to a mandatory sinking fund payment without the option to deliver or credit Securities as provided in Section 1202 and without the right to make any optional sinking fund payment, if any, with respect to such series.

Not more than 60 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 1103 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 1104. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 1106 and 1107.

Prior to any sinking fund payment date, the Company shall pay to the Trustee or a Paying Agent (or, if the Company is acting as its own Paying Agent, segregate and hold in trust as provided in [Article 10]) in cash a sum equal to the principal (and premium, if any) and any interest that will accrue to the date fixed for redemption of Securities or portions thereof to be redeemed on such sinking fund payment date pursuant to this Section 1203.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to a sinking fund for any series of Securities, if at any time the amount of cash to be paid into such sinking fund on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date, together with any unused balance of any preceding sinking fund payment or payments for such series, does not exceed in the aggregate $100,000, the Trustee, unless requested by the Company, shall not give the next succeeding notice of the redemption of Securities of such series through the operation of the sinking fund. Any such unused balance of moneys deposited in such sinking fund shall be added to the sinking fund payment for such series to be made in cash on the next succeeding sinking fund payment date or, at the request of the Company, shall be applied at any time or from time to time to the purchase of Securities of such series, by public or private purchase, in the open market or otherwise, at a purchase price for such Securities (excluding accrued interest and brokerage commissions, for which the Trustee or any Paying Agent will be reimbursed by the Company) not in excess of the principal amount thereof.

ARTICLE 13

REPAYMENT AT OPTION OF HOLDERS

SECTION 1301. Applicability of Article. Repayment of Securities of any series before their Stated Maturity at the option of Holders thereof shall be made in accordance with the terms of such Securities and (except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301 for Securities of any series) in accordance with this Article.

 

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SECTION 1302. Repayment of Securities. Securities of any series subject to repayment in whole or in part at the option of the Holders thereof will, unless otherwise provided in the terms of such Securities, be repaid at the Repayment Price thereof, together with interest, if any, thereon accrued to the Repayment Date specified in or pursuant to the terms of such Securities. The Company covenants that on or before the Repayment Date it will deposit with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent (or, if the Company is acting as its own Paying Agent, segregate and hold in trust as provided in [Article 10]) an amount of money in the Currency in which the Securities of such series are payable (except as otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301 for the Securities of such series and except, if applicable, as provided in Sections 312(b), 312(d) and 312(e)) sufficient to pay the Repayment Price of, and (except if the Repayment Date shall be an Interest Payment Date) accrued interest, if any, on, all the Securities or portions thereof, as the case may be, to be repaid on such date.

SECTION 1303. Exercise of Option. Securities of any series subject to repayment at the option of the Holders thereof will contain an “Option to Elect Repayment” form on the reverse of such Securities. To be repaid at the option of the Holder, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301 for Securities of such series, any Security so providing for such repayment, with the “Option to Elect Repayment” form on the reverse of such Security duly completed by the Holder (or by the Holder’s attorney duly authorized in writing), must be received by the Company at the Place of Payment therefor specified in the terms of such Security (or at such other place or places of which the Company shall from time to time notify the Holders of such Securities) not earlier than 45 days nor later than 30 days prior to the Repayment Date. If less than the entire Repayment Price of such Security is to be repaid in accordance with the terms of such Security, the portion of the Repayment Price of such Security to be repaid, in increments of the minimum denomination for Securities of such series, and the denomination or denominations of the Security or Securities to be issued to the Holder for the portion of such Security surrendered that is not to be repaid, must be specified. Any Security providing for repayment at the option of the Holder thereof may not be repaid in part if, following such repayment, the unpaid principal amount of such Security would be less than the minimum authorized denomination of Securities of the series of which such Security to be repaid is a part. Except as otherwise may be provided by the terms of any Security providing for repayment at the option of the Holder thereof, exercise of the repayment option by the Holder shall be irrevocable unless waived by the Company.

 

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SECTION 1304. When Securities Presented for Repayment Become Due and Payable. If Securities of any series providing for repayment at the option of the Holders thereof shall have been surrendered as provided in this Article and as provided by or pursuant to the terms of such Securities, such Securities or the portions thereof, as the case may be, to be repaid shall become due and payable and shall be paid by the Company on the Repayment Date therein specified, and on and after such Repayment Date (unless the Company shall default in the payment of such Securities on such Repayment Date) such Securities shall, if the same were interest-bearing, cease to bear interest and the coupons for such interest appertaining to any Bearer Securities so to be repaid, except to the extent provided below, shall be void. Upon surrender of any such Security for repayment in accordance with such provisions, together with all coupons, if any, appertaining thereto maturing after the Repayment Date, the Repayment Price of such Security so to be repaid shall be paid by the Company, together with accrued interest, if any, to the Repayment Date; provided, however, that coupons whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to the Repayment Date shall be payable only at an office or agency located outside the United States (except as otherwise provided in [Article 10]) and, unless otherwise specified pursuant to Section 301, only upon presentation and surrender of such coupons; and provided further that, in the case of Registered Securities, installments of interest, if any, whose Stated Maturity is on or prior to the Repayment Date shall be payable to the Holders of such Securities, or one or more Predecessor Securities, registered as such at the close of business on the relevant Regular Record Dates according to their terms and the provisions of Section 307.

If any Bearer Security surrendered for repayment shall not be accompanied by all appurtenant coupons maturing after the Repayment Date, such Security may be paid after deducting from the amount payable therefor as provided in Section 1302 an amount equal to the face amount of all such missing coupons, or the surrender of such missing coupon or coupons may be waived by the Company and the Trustee if there be furnished to them such security or indemnity as they may require to save each of them and any Paying Agent harmless. If thereafter the Holder of such Security shall surrender to the Trustee or any Paying Agent any such missing coupon in respect of which a deduction shall have been made as provided in the preceding sentence, such Holder shall be entitled to receive the amount so deducted; provided, however, that interest represented by coupons shall be payable only at an office or agency located outside the United States (except as otherwise provided in [Article 10]) and, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301, only upon presentation and surrender of those coupons.

If the principal amount of any Security surrendered for repayment shall not be so repaid upon surrender thereof, such principal amount (together with interest, if any, thereon accrued to such Repayment Date) shall, until paid, bear interest from the Repayment Date at the rate of interest or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) set forth in or contemplated by such Security.

 

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SECTION 1305. Securities Repaid in Part. Upon surrender of any Security which is to be repaid in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver to the Holder of such Security, without service charge and at the expense of the Company, a new Security or Securities of the same series, and of like tenor, of any authorized denomination specified by the Holder, in an aggregate principal amount equal to and in exchange for the portion of the principal of such Security so surrendered which is not to be repaid.

ARTICLE 14

DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE

SECTION 1401. Companys Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance. Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 301 for Securities of any series, the provisions of this Article Fourteen shall apply to each series of Securities, and the Company may, at its option, effect defeasance of the Securities of or within a series under Section 1402, or covenant defeasance of or within a series under Section 1403 in accordance with the terms of such Securities and in accordance with this Article.

SECTION 1402. Defeasance and Discharge. Upon the Company’s exercise of the above option applicable to this Section with respect to any Securities of or within a series, the Company shall be deemed to have been discharged from its obligations with respect to such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons on the date the conditions set forth in Section 1404 are satisfied (hereinafter, “defeasance”). For this purpose, such defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons, which shall thereafter be deemed to be “Outstanding” only for the purposes of Section 1405 and the other Sections of this Indenture referred to in (A) and (B) below, and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and any related coupons and this Indenture insofar as such Securities and any related coupons are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), except for the following which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (A) the rights of Holders of such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 1404 and as more fully set forth in such Section, payments in respect of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on such Securities and any related coupons when such payments are due, (B) the Company’s obligations with respect to such Securities under Sections 304, 305, 306, [Article 10] and with respect to the payment of Additional Amounts, if any, on such Securities as contemplated by [Article 10] and such obligations as shall be ancillary thereto, (C) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder including, without limitation, Section 606 and the penultimate paragraph of Section 1405 and (D) this Article Fourteen. Subject to compliance with this Article Fourteen, the Company may exercise its option under this Section 1402 notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section 1403 with respect to such Securities and any related coupons.

 

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SECTION 1403. Covenant Defeasance. Upon the Company’s exercise of the above option applicable to this Section with respect to any Securities of or within a series, the Company shall be released from its obligations under Sections 801 and 802 and [Article 10], and, if specified pursuant to Section 301, its obligations under any other covenant, with respect to such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 1404 are satisfied (hereinafter, “covenant defeasance”), and such Securities and any related coupons shall thereafter be deemed not to be “Outstanding” for the purposes of any direction, waiver, consent or declaration or Act of Holders (and the consequences of any thereof) in connection with such covenants, but shall continue to be deemed “Outstanding” for all other purposes hereunder. For this purpose, such covenant defeasance means that, with respect to such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons, the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such covenant, whether directly or indirectly, by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such covenant or by reason of reference in any such covenant to any other provision herein or in any other document and such omission to comply shall not constitute a Default or an Event of Default under Section 501[__] or Section 501[__] or otherwise, as the case may be, but, except as specified above, the remainder of this Indenture and such Securities and any related coupons shall be unaffected thereby.

SECTION 1404. Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance. The following shall be the conditions to application of either Section 1402 or Section 1403 to any Outstanding Securities of or within a series and any related coupons:

(1) The Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 607 who shall agree to comply with the provisions of this Article Fourteen applicable to it) as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities and any related coupons, (A) an amount (in such Currency in which such Securities and any related coupons are then specified as payable at Stated Maturity), or (B) Government Obligations applicable to such Securities (determined on the basis of the Currency in which such Securities are then specified as payable at Stated Maturity) which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than one day before the due date of any payment of principal of and premium, if any, and interest, if any, under such Securities and any related coupons, money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, (i) the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons on the Stated Maturity (or Redemption Date, if applicable) of such principal (and premium, if any) or installment of interest, if any, and (ii) any mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments applicable to such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and of such Securities and any related coupons; provided that the Trustee shall have been irrevocably instructed to apply such money or the proceeds of such Government Obligations to said payments with respect to such Securities and any related coupons. Before such a deposit, the Company may give to the Trustee, in accordance with Section 1102, a notice of its election to redeem all or any portion of such Outstanding Securities at a future date in accordance with the terms of the Securities of such series and Article Eleven, which notice shall be irrevocable. Such irrevocable redemption notice, if given, shall be given effect in applying the foregoing.

 

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(2) No Default or Event of Default with respect to such Securities or any related coupons shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or, insofar as paragraphs [__] and [__] of Section 501 are concerned, at any time during the period ending on the 91st day after the date of such deposit (it being understood that this condition shall not be deemed satisfied until the expiration of such period).

(3) Such defeasance or covenant defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any material agreement or instrument (other than this Indenture) to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is bound.

(4) In the case of an election under Section 1402, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (x) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (y) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and such defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and such defeasance had not occurred.

(5) In the case of an election under Section 1403, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and such covenant defeasance had not occurred.

(6) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Section, such defeasance or covenant defeasance shall be effected in compliance with any additional or substitute terms, conditions or limitations in connection therewith pursuant to Section 301.

(7) The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to either the defeasance under Section 1402 or the covenant defeasance under Section 1403 (as the case may be) have been complied with.

 

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SECTION 1405. Deposited Money and Government Obligations to Be Held in Trust; Other Miscellaneous Provisions. Subject to the provisions of the last paragraph of [Article 10], all money and Government Obligations (or other property as may be provided pursuant to Section 301) (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee, collectively for purposes of this Section 1405, the “Trustee”) pursuant to Section 1404 in respect of such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and any related coupons and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of such Securities and any related coupons of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

Unless otherwise specified with respect to any Security pursuant to Section 301, if, after a deposit referred to in Section 1404(1) has been made, (a) the Holder of a Security in respect of which such deposit was made is entitled to, and does, elect pursuant to Section 312(b) or the terms of such Security to receive payment in a Currency other than that in which the deposit pursuant to Section 1404(1) has been made in respect of such Security, or (b) a Conversion Event occurs as contemplated in Section 312(d) or 312(e) or by the terms of any Security in respect of which the deposit pursuant to Section 1404(1) has been made, the indebtedness represented by such Security and any related coupons shall be deemed to have been, and will be, fully discharged and satisfied through the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest, if any, on such Security as they become due out of the proceeds yielded by converting (from time to time as specified below in the case of any such election) the amount or other property deposited in respect of such Security into the Currency in which such Security becomes payable as a result of such election or Conversion Event based on the applicable Market Exchange Rate for such Currency in effect on the third Business Day prior to each payment date, except, with respect to a Conversion Event, for such Currency in effect (as nearly as feasible) at the time of the Conversion Event.

The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the cash or Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 1404 or the principal and interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of such Outstanding Securities and any related coupons. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the foregoing sentence shall survive the termination of this Indenture and the earlier resignation or removal of the Trustee.

Anything in this Article Fourteen to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money or Government Obligations (or other property and any proceeds therefrom) held by it as provided in Section 1404 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect a defeasance or covenant defeasance, as applicable, in accordance with this Article.

 

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SECTION 1406. Reinstatement. If the Trustee or any Paying Agent is unable to apply any money in accordance with Section 1405 with respect to any Securities by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, then the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and such Securities and any related coupons shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 1402 or 1403, as the case may be, until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 1405; provided, however, that if the Company makes any payment of principal of (or premium, if any) or interest, if any, on any such Security or any related coupon following the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities and any related coupons to receive such payment from the money held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.

ARTICLE 15

MEETINGS OF HOLDERS OF SECURITIES

SECTION 1501. Purposes for Which Meetings May Be Called. If Securities of a series are issuable as Bearer Securities, a meeting of Holders of Securities of such series may be called at any time and from time to time pursuant to this Article to make, give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action provided by this Indenture to be made, given or taken by Holders of Securities of such series.

SECTION 1502. Call, Notice and Place of Meetings. The Trustee may at any time call a meeting of Holders of Securities of any series for any purpose specified in Section 1501, to be held at such time and at such place in The City of New York or in London as the Trustee shall determine. Notice of every meeting of Holders of Securities of any series, setting forth the time and the place of such meeting and in general terms the action proposed to be taken at such meeting, shall be given, in the manner provided for in Section 106, not less than 21 nor more than 180 days prior to the date fixed for the meeting.

(a) In case at any time the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, or the Holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series shall have requested the Trustee to call a meeting of the Holders of Securities of such series for any purpose specified in Section 1501, by written request setting forth in reasonable detail the action proposed to be taken at the meeting, and the Trustee shall not have made the first publication of the notice of such meeting within 21 days after receipt of such request or shall not thereafter proceed to cause the meeting to be held as provided herein, then the Company or the Holders of Securities of such series in the amount above specified, as the case may be, may determine the time and the place in The City of New York or in London for such meeting and may call such meeting for such purposes by giving notice thereof as provided in paragraph (a) of this Section.

SECTION 1503. Persons Entitled to Vote at Meetings. To be entitled to vote at any meeting of Holders of Securities of any series, a Person shall be (1) a Holder of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series, or (2) a Person appointed by an instrument in writing as proxy for a Holder or Holders of one or more Outstanding Securities of such series by such Holder of Holders. The only Persons who shall be entitled to be present or to speak at any meeting of Holders of Securities of any series shall be the Person entitled to vote at such meeting and their counsel, any representatives of the Trustee and its counsel and any representatives of the Company and its counsel.

 

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SECTION 1504. Quorum; Action. The Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of a series shall constitute a quorum for a meeting of Holders of Securities of such series; provided, however, that, if any action is to be taken at such meeting with respect to a consent or waiver which this Indenture expressly provides may be given by the Holders of not less than a specified percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of a series, the Persons entitled to vote such specified percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series shall constitute a quorum. In the absence of a quorum within 30 minutes of the time appointed for any such meeting, the meeting shall, if convened at the request of Holders of Securities of such series, be dissolved. In any other case the meeting may be adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such meeting. In the absence of a quorum at any such adjourned meeting, such adjourned meeting may be further adjourned for a period of not less than 10 days as determined by the chairman of the meeting prior to the adjournment of such adjourned meeting. Notice of the reconvening of any adjourned meeting shall be given as provided in Section 1502(a), except that such notice need be given only once not less than five days prior to the date on which the meeting is scheduled to be reconvened. Notice of the reconvening of any adjourned meeting shall state expressly the percentage, as provided above, of the principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series which shall constitute a quorum.

Except as limited by the proviso to Section 902, any resolution presented to a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present as aforesaid may be adopted by the affirmative vote of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series; provided, however, that, except as limited by the proviso to Section 902, any resolution with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which this Indenture expressly provides may be made, given or taken by the Holders of a specified percentage, which is less than a majority, in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of a series may be adopted at a meeting or an adjourned meeting duly reconvened and at which a quorum is present as aforesaid by the affirmative vote of the Holders of not less than such specified percentage in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series.

Any resolution passed or decision taken at any meeting of Holders of Securities of any series duly held in accordance with this Section shall be binding on all the Holders of Securities of such series and the related coupons, whether or not present or represented at the meeting.

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1504, if any action is to be taken at a meeting of Holders of Securities of any series with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that this Indenture expressly provides may be made, given or taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in principal amount of all Outstanding Securities affected thereby, or of the Holders of such series and one or more additional series:

 

  (i)

there shall be no minimum quorum requirement for such meeting; and

 

  (ii)

the principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series that vote in favor of such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action shall be taken into account in determining whether such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action has been made, given or taken under this Indenture.

 

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SECTION 1505. Determination of Voting Rights; Conduct and Adjournment of Meetings. Notwithstanding any provisions of this Indenture, the Trustee may make such reasonable regulations as it may deem advisable for any meeting of Holders of Securities of a series in regard to proof of the holding of Securities of such series and of the appointment of proxies and in regard to the appointment and duties of inspectors of votes, the submission and examination of proxies, certificates and other evidence of the right to vote, and such other matters concerning the conduct of the meeting as its shall deem appropriate. Except as otherwise permitted or required by any such regulations, the holding of Securities shall be proved in the manner specified in Section 104 and the appointment of any proxy shall be proved in the manner specified in Section 104 or by having the signature of the person executing the proxy witnessed or guaranteed by any trust company, bank or banker authorized by Section 104 to certify to the holding of Bearer Securities. Such regulations may provide that written instruments appointing proxies, regular on their face, may be presumed valid and genuine without the proof specified in Section 104 or other proof.

(a) The Trustee shall, by an instrument in writing appoint a temporary chairman of the meeting, unless the meeting shall have been called by the Company or by Holders of Securities as provided in Section 1502(b), in which case the Company or the Holders of Securities of the series calling the meeting, as the case may be, shall in like manner appoint a temporary chairman. A permanent chairman and a permanent secretary of the meeting shall be elected by vote of the Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series represented at the meeting.

(b) At any meeting each Holder of a Security of such series or proxy shall be entitled to one vote for each $1,000 principal amount of Outstanding Securities of such series held or represented by him (determined as specified in the definition of “Outstanding” in Section 101); provided, however, that no vote shall be cast or counted at any meeting in respect of any Security challenged as not Outstanding and ruled by the chairman of the meeting to be not Outstanding. The chairman of the meeting shall have no right to vote, except as a Holder of a Security of such series or proxy.

(c) Any meeting of Holders of Securities of any series duly called pursuant to Section 1502 at which a quorum is present may be adjourned from time to time by Persons entitled to vote a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series represented at the meeting; and the meeting may be held as so adjourned without further notice.

SECTION 1506. Counting Votes and Recording Action of Meetings. The vote upon any resolution submitted to any meeting of Holders of Securities of any series shall be by written ballots on which shall be subscribed the signatures of the Holders of Securities of such series or of their representatives by proxy and the principal amounts and serial numbers of the Outstanding Securities of such series held or represented by them. The permanent chairman of the meeting shall appoint two inspectors of votes who shall count all votes cast at the meeting for or against any resolution and who shall make and file with the secretary of the meeting their verified written reports in duplicate of all votes cast at the meeting. A record, at least in duplicate, of the

 

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proceedings of each meeting of Holders of Securities of any series shall be prepared by the Secretary of the meeting and there shall be attached to said record the original reports of the inspectors of votes on any vote by ballot taken thereat and affidavits by one or more persons having knowledge of the facts setting forth a copy of the notice of the meeting and showing that said notice was given as provided in Section 1502 and, if applicable, Section 1504. Each copy shall be signed and verified by the affidavits of the permanent chairman and secretary of the meeting and one such copy shall be delivered to the Company, and another to the Trustee to be preserved by the Trustee, the latter to have attached thereto the ballots voted at the meeting. Any record so signed and verified shall be conclusive evidence of the matters therein stated. The provisions of articles 86 to 94.8 of the Luxembourg law of August 10, 1915 on commercial companies, as amended, are hereby excluded.

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which so executed shall be deemed to be an original, but all such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same Indenture.

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Left Blank]

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, as of the day and year first above written.

 

TARSUS PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
as Issuer
By:    
Name:  
Title:  

 

[TRUSTEE]
as Trustee
By:    
Name:  
Title:  

[Signature Page to Indenture]


EXHIBIT A

FORMS OF CERTIFICATION

 

A-1


EXHIBIT A-1

FORM OF CERTIFICATE TO BE GIVEN BY

PERSON ENTITLED TO RECEIVE BEARER SECURITY

OR TO OBTAIN INTEREST PAYABLE PRIOR

TO THE EXCHANGE DATE

CERTIFICATE

[Insert title or sufficient description

of Securities to be delivered]

This is to certify that as of the date hereof, and except as set forth below, the above-captioned Securities held by you for our account (i) are owned by person(s) that are not citizens or residents of the United States, domestic partnerships, domestic corporations, any estate the income of which is subject to United States federal income taxation regardless of its source or any trust if a court within the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more United States persons have the authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust (“United States person(s)”), (ii) are owned by United States person(s) that are (a) foreign branches of United States financial institutions (financial institutions, as defined in United States Treasury Regulations Section 1.165-12(c)(1)(v) are herein referred to as “financial institutions”) purchasing for their own account or for resale, or (b) United States person(s) who acquired the Securities through foreign branches of United States financial institutions and who hold the Securities through such United States financial institutions on the date hereof (and in either case (a) or (b), each such United States financial institution hereby agrees, on its own behalf or through its agent, that you may advise Tarsus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. or its agent that such financial institution will comply with the requirements of Section 165(j)(3)(A), (B) or (C) of the United States Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, and the regulations thereunder), or (iii) are owned by United States or foreign financial institution(s) for purposes of resale during the restricted period (as defined in United States Treasury Regulations Section 1.163-5(c)(2)(i)(D)(7)), and, in addition, if the owner is a United States or foreign financial institution described in clause (iii) above (whether or not also described in clause (i) or (ii)), this is to further certify that such financial institution has not acquired the Securities for purposes of resale directly or indirectly to a United States person or to a person within the United States or its possessions.

As used herein, “United States” means the United States of America (including the states and the District of Columbia); and its “possessions” include Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Wake Island and the Northern Mariana Islands.

We undertake to advise you promptly by tested telex on or prior to the date on which you intend to submit your certification relating to the above-captioned Securities held by you for our account in accordance with your Operating Procedures if any applicable statement herein is not correct on such date, and in the absence of any such notification it may be assumed that this certification applies as of such date.

 

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